Great scent for artist/musicians/poets-
the aromatic Amyris is native to Asia, Haiti and other Caribbean islands, as well as Central America. Patience is required, as this tree that grows to be 2-4 meters needs approximately 30 years before it produces its sweet essential oil.
Amyris’ woody, balsamic aroma is relaxing and calming to the nerves. Its cooling action also helps to relieve frustration as well as general stress and irritability. The scent is both uplifting and soothing.
Amyris, also known as ‘West Indian Sandalwood’
Connected to the planet Venus, Amyris both calming and nourishing to the heart chakra. Amyris anchors one’s energy in a state of receptivity and openness, thus enhancing the flow of grace by opening the pathways for inspiration, and transformation. Heightening intuition, creativity, and imagination, Amyris is an excellent oil for dreamers, artists, musicians and poets as she supports them in connecting with creative source energy.
Amyris restores a natural, innocent outlook on life, bringing joy and laughter to our hearts and assisting us in making choices that uplift and nourish, thus encouraging love for ourselves and the world as a whole.
just arrived today,an essential oil i have always wanted
Helichrysum, also known as Everlasting Essential Oil or Immortelle, has been studied in Europe for regeneration of nerves, improving skin conditions, reducing inflammation, relieving pain, and speeding healing.
There are many species of Helichrysum, though it is only the ‘italicum’ species that is true ‘Immortelle’ or ‘Everlasting’, with the regenerative actions attributed to this wonderful oil. Further, the Corsican variety is actually considered a sub-species, noted as Helichrysum italicum spp. sertinum. The island is the only source known for producing oils with consistently high levels of Neryl Acetate, a molecular constituent thought to have anti-spasmodic properties. As you continue reading, note that this is the only significant difference in the chemistry profile of the two Helichrysum sources.
Our current stocks both have excellent, synergistic chemistry profiles. The unique natural molecular components of these Helichrysum italicum oils include anti-inflammatory alpha, beta and gamma-curcumenes (think ‘curcumine’, the anti-inflammatory extract from tumeric), and high amounts of regenerative di-ketones. While ketone-containing essential oils are generally to be avoided, the di-ketones (actually ‘Italidiones’ in Helichrysum) are perfectly safe.
The curcumenes found, too, in Ginger essential oil, are also chelators of metals from the body (some users will massage a diluted formula into their feet to support removal of metals from the body). The di-ketones are not found in any other essential oil (hence the name ‘Italidiones’, from Helichrysum italicum). They are thought to be potent aids in stimulating tissue regeneration. These are one of the reasons you’ll frequently find Helichrysum in scar-reduction and wound healing formulas.
A few usage suggestions: For burns, apply undiluted as soon as possible for immediate relief – only 1-3 drops are necessary. For impact-type injuries, apply undiluted immediately to prevent initial swelling and reduce healing time; use enough to cover the area in a thin layer (this is often only a few drops). Same for ‘twists’ (an ankle, for example). Repeat application again in 30 minutes if you think it’s necessary.
When using undiluted, just put your index finger on the top of the bottle (for 5 and 12ml bottles, otherwise dispense drop by drop using an eyedropper) and invert the bottle ~ then apply from your fingertip. We have had many reports of successful application to sports injuries and the like, with rapid healing and minimal downtime.
For older injuries (more than a few hours) it has been suggested to use diluted in any carrier oil. We personally use Jojoba most of the time, though any carrier will work. The dilution is a matter of personal preference, though we keep a bottle of 20% Helichrysum on-hand (this is 6ml in 24ml carrier oil, to fill a one-ounce glass bottle). We use this for sports injuries and pain like backaches, stiff joints and the like. For neck pain, we sometimes will use at full strength. For many users, relief is reported as nearly immediate (though this depends on how deep within the body the damage tissues are and how old the injury might be) and more profound than products which simply mask the pain. For further support for inflamed areas, 1% German Chamomile can be included.
Helichrysum is the only essential oil found to contain certain di-ketones, which may support wound healing and scar reduction. It is suitable for wound healing and for scars, resulting either from accidents, surgery or acne. It may be especially effective when combined with Rose Hip Seed oil. The triple unsaturated fatty acids may strengthen the cell membranes and, combined with the regenerative qualities of Everlasting, can heal wounds with little or no scarring. The following combination is suggested Schnaubelt’s ‘Advanced Aromatherapy’: 2ml Helichrysum essential oil and 1ml Sea Buckthorn essential oil in 15ml Rose Hip Seed Oil and 15ml Tamanu oil; for ‘old’ scars, use 2ml Helichrysum, 1ml Sea Buckthorn, and 1ml Sage OR Rosemary Verbenone essential oil in the same base. We also highly recommend Calendula essential oil for wound healing; there is a large body of scientific evidence this oil has strong tissue healing properties, and should synergize excellently with Helichrysum.
Helichrysum oil may provide relief of joint pain for individuals with arthritic conditions, with potential significant anti-inflammatory action. Many folks use if for general stiff, painful and tight musculature as well. A recent customer had this to say about this oil: “Just a note of thanks for the speedy delivery and the great product. You can add TMJ/facial pain to uses list…which is how I’ve been using it. I mixed the 5ml bottle in a 2oz bottle of organic jojoba and am applying to TMJ muscles and neck (also chest)…also have experienced many interesting spirit/emotional ‘releases’…this stuff works wonders”.
Helichrysum may be of support for peripheral nerve-related conditions; it can be applied in 5-20% dilution to areas of numbness or tingling. It has been indicated by some users for support with symptoms of tinnitus: drop on a cotton ball, placed in the ear while sleeping each night for two weeks) and other forms of hearing loss or damage.
This essential oil contains anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene hydrocarbons – this compound acts by dissipating free radicals. Helichrysum essential oil’s other major components include neryl acetate, a monoterpenoid ester with distinct, relaxing effects that may reduce tension of the tissues in the area of the injury. The third major component are the regenerative di-ketones, found in significant quantities only in Helichrysum oil. “The pain- reducing, analgesic, and regenerative effect of everlasting (Helichrysum) is unique: If applied in time, it prevents hemorrhaging. It is also very effective for joint pain…” – Dr. Kurt Schnaubelt, Advanced Aromatherapy.
The oil is also thought to be a strong chelator, supporting liver function and potentially drawing heavy metals and toxins out of the body. It is noted as one of, if not THE, most effective detoxification supporting essential oils by Battaglia in ‘The Complete Guide to Aromatherapy’. A strong dilution can be used (1:1 in coconut oil, for example) and massaged twice per day into the feet. The reflex points of the feet corresponding to the liver may be of greatest help in this process.
The aroma is thought to uplift the subconscious, and can be used in a diffuser if desired. It is thought to be a releaser of Qi (Chi), unblocking and regulating this essential energy in the body. It may help individuals that are emotionally blocked, dispersing more deeply embedded repression. At its most transformative, Helichrysum oil may assist in untying the deepest of emotional knots, restoring freedom and compassion to the eternal soul.
more here http://www.anandaapothecary.com
Read more about Helichrysum oil in action:
The Supportive Healing of Helichrysum
A.K.A Everlasting & Immortelle: Wondrous Essential Oil
Support for Healing Wounds and Scars with Essential Oils
To learn more about the use of all our essential oils, we encourage you to visit The Ananda Apothecary Forums, where you can post questions regarding specific applications of each oil. Questions in the forums are regularly answered by Ananda Apothecary staff, and other experienced aromatherapy practitioners.
Uses: Helichrysum may be applied undiluted to bumps, strains, sprains or burns that have just occurred. Do not apply to open wounds. For older injuries, dilute between 1:1 and 1:10 in any carrier oil. Can be blended with Tea Tree or other oils for additional antiseptic action.
Possible Actions: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, regenerative, chelating.
Indications: Nerve pain, joint pain, bruises, wound healing, scar reduction, heavy metal toxicity.
Cautions: Always test a small amount first for sensitivity or allergic reaction. May be used safely as a natural aromatic. If pregnant or under a doctor’s care, consult a physician
INTRODUCTION: Important research on pesticide health effects is reported in the medical journal summaries below. This information is intended to be used to guide public health laws and policies in the work place, residential communities, condominiums, schools, as well as a foundation for city and state laws. The majority of information was acquired by extensive research from the University of Florida and University of South Florida Medical Libraries as well as through the National Library of Medicine Toxline program and PubMed. Credibility is established as each research summary provides detailed source information including the name of the research journal, date, academic institutions involved as well as the names of scientists and physicians involved in the research. The complete journal articles for any summary listed can be ordered from a public library through its “Inner Library Loan Program” or often acquired on the spot at medical university libraries (i.e Shands Hospital Library University of Florida).
NEW CONCERN: ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION
Current pesticide health laws and policies are based primarily on documentation showing risks from cancer, immediate death and other acute health effects. However, a new toxicology field known as “Endocrine Disruption” is generating extreme concern among scientists as it now appears that many pesticides can reduce levels of essential hormones regulating growth, metabolism and neurological development in children, as well as affecting hormones involved in aging for adults. For example, common pyrethroid pesticides have been found to alter levels of the critical hormones testosterone, progesterone and estradiol. As pesticides reduce levels of these hormones in the blood, consequences can be seen from mild to catastrophic for the organism. While it now appears that pesticides have been creating this problem for over the past 50 years, it wasn’t until recently that the problem has been identified and addressed in detail. In fact, it wasn’t until 2010 that the EPA initiated the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program which forces chemical manufacturers to go back and test some high exposure chemicals and pesticides for endocrine disruption potential.
Information compiled by
Wayne Sinclair, M.D. (Board Certified Immunology)
Richard Pressinger, M.Ed.
HOME CONSTRUCTION PESTICIDE APPLICATIONS
100 gallons of chemical pesticides are soaked into the soil per 1000 square feet of home area prior to pouring of concrete foundation. Research now shows these chemicals enter into the home years later and are breathed continuously by home occupants. Building a new home? Use alternative methods to this procedure as they are effective and available.
FOOD PESTICIDE APPLICATIONS
Approximately 75% of all grocery store produce tested positive for various pesticide residues. Over 19% of commercial lettuce from major grocery store chains contained the pesticide DDT or DDE – Although research suggests these levels can affect humans, the EPA does not currently require chemical companies to test their pesticides for detailed immune system effects or subtle neurological effects (i.e. memory, concentration, personality, learning etc).
Click Research Topic – or scroll down to view all research
* Neurological & Behavioral Abnormalities from Home Pyrethroid Pesticide
* Breast Cancer linked to common home pesticide chlordane
* Birth defect rates higher for babies born near agriculture using pesticides
* Mosquito control & agriculture pesticides linked to weakening immune system
* Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma linked to pesticides and chemicals
* Mosquito Repellent DEET linked to brain damage
* Fetal Death and Malformations Linked to Recent Pesticide Exposure
* Neuroblastoma linked to Home Pesticide Exposure
* Miscarriages Linked to living within 1 mile from Agriculture
* Higher Cancer Rate Among Children When Exposed to Indoor Pesticides
* Brain Damage During Pregnancy from Pesticide Chlorpyrifos (Dursban)
* Common Weed Killer (Roundup) Linked to Environmental and Health Problems
* Parkinson’s Disease Higher in Agricultural Areas
* Prostate Cancer Risk Doubles in Pesticide Applicators
* Poison in the Grass – An excellent report on dangers of lawn pesticides.
* Living Near Agriculture Increases Brain Cancer Risk
* Golf Course Superintendents Face Higher Cancer Rate
* Home Pesticides Increase Rate of Child Cancer
* Pesticide Vapors Remain in Indoor Air for Weeks/Months After Application
* Immune System Problems Appear After Indoor Dursban Application
* Flea Home Pesticide Treatment Cause Very High Indoor Air Pesticide Levels
* Brain and Lung Cancer Higher in Pesticide Applicators
* Lawn Pesticides Found to Damage Brain Function
* Birth Defect Linked to Common Lawn Fungicides
* Lawn Pesticides Linked to Increased Cancer Risk
* Hyperactivity Linked to Single Pesticide Exposure
* A.D.D. (Attention Deficit Disorder) and other neurological problems linked to the pesticide Chlordane which contaminates most homes built before 1988.
* Male Infertility Linked to the Pesticide Chlordane
* Pet Bladder Cancer Linked to Flea Dips
* Pet Bladder Cancer Linked to Lawn Pesticides
* Increased Child Cancer due to Pesticides Doctors state at Conference
* Long term infertility damage from pesticides
MEDICAL JOURNAL PESTICIDE TOXICOLOGY SUMMARIES
Home Pyrethroid Pesticide Impairs Cognition and Behavioral Development
SOURCE: Toxicology Letters: 2011, June 24; 23(3):245-51
Background: The home pesticide Dursban (also known as chlorpyrifos) was an organophosphate pesticide used in homes for decades until its ban by EPA in June 2000 (It had been found to cause birth defects and autoimmune disorders). This class of organophosphate pesticides have now been mostly replaced with what is known as pyrethroid pesticides for home pest control. In a study conducted by the Anhui Medical University in China, it was found that animals exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide fenvalerate (which contains esfenvalerate), caused impairment in spatial learning and memory. In addition, the pesticide increased anxiety activities in females. The harmful effects of fenvalerate occurred when the pesticide was exposed to animals during their human equivalent pubertal period. This puberty period in animals (and humans) is a time in which hormones regulate important changes in brain structure and development. The pyrethroid pesticide fenvalerate is believed to be an endocrine disruptor compound. Endocrine disruptor compounds are chemicals which have the ability to mimic natural hormones in the body (such as testosterone, progesterone and estradiol), thereby, fooling the body into believing there is more or less of the natural hormone present.
Chem-Tox Comment: Since having precise levels of natural hormones is critical for proper brain development in teenage students (and reduction of aging for adults), the potential for home pesticides to alter hormone levels during the critical window of development for teenage children, and thereby cause permanent injury to the individual, is of immediate concern.
Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Population Heath & Aristogenics
Department of Maternal, Child & Adolescent Health
Anhui Medical University
Breast Cancer Linked to Home Pesticide Chlordane
SOURCE: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Volume 90:55-64, 2005
One in eight women in the United States will develop breast cancer according to the latest statistics. Breast cancer rates in the U.S. are 3-7 times higher than those in Asia. This 2005 study conducted at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research and Texas Tech University Health Science Center in Lubbock Texas found that cancerous human breast tissue contained the chemical heptachlor epoxide (found in the common home pesticide chlordane) at levels 4 times higher than non-cancerous breast tissue. Chlordane was the primary termite prevention pesticide used in over 30 million U.S. homes between the mid 1950′s and 1988. An estimated 50 million U.S. residents are currently exposed to the volatization of this chemical from previously treated pre-1989 homes on a daily basis. (For more information on chlordane go to http://www.chem-tox.com/chlordane ).
Dr. Richard A. Cassidy, Sridhar, George M. Vaughan
Tox Free, Inc., Tell City, IN
Texas Tech University Health Science Center, Lubbock, TX
US Army Institute of Surgical Research
Birth Defects Higher in Babies Born to Families
Living near Farming Areas using Pesticides
SOURCE: Environmental Health Perspectives
Volume 111(9):1259-1264, July, 2003
Babies born to families living near wheat growing agricultural areas using chemical pesticides have been found to have a 65% greater risk of having birth defects related to the circulatory/respiratory system. The pesticide category believed to be the culprit is known as chlorophenoxy herbicides that contain the chemical 2,4-D. Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used to kill a variety of weeds and are also commonly used by city and county maintenance departments for grass and weed control along roads, canals etc. Other conclusions of the study found there was over a 100% increase in respiratory/circulatory birth defects in babies if heart malformations were excluded. When looking at musculoskeletal/intergumental anomalies for both sexes in the high-wheat growing counties, there was a 50% increased risk of these types of defects. Infant deaths for male babies (from congenital anomalies related to the birth defects) was over 2.5 times higher than normal. Scientists also found that infants conceived from April-June (the time of primary pesticide application) had a 75% increased risk of being diagnosed with birth defects – compared to birth defect rates for conception during other times of the year.
In conclusion, the scientists stated – “These results are especially of concern because of widespread use of chlorphenoxy herbicides.”
Dina M. Schreinemachers
National Health and Environmental effects Research Laboratory
Office of Research and Development
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
Mosquito Control – Lawn & Agricultural Pesticides
Linked to Immune System Weakening and Frog Mutations
SOURCE: Article below appeared in the San Francisco Chronicle
by Carl T. Hall, Chronicle Science Writer
Original journal article appeared in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: 99(15):9900-9904, July 23, 2002
Raising new questions about the environmental risks of some widely used farm chemicals, scientists are reporting today the first evidence linking agricultural runoff to grotesque hind-limb deformities in frogs. Researchers said frogs appear to be made more vulnerable to a common parasite when exposed to the pesticides atrazine and malathion. The parasite, a burrowing trematode worm, tends to infect the hindquarters of developing tadpoles. Atrazine is part of a family of chemicals that rank among the world’s most widely used weed killers. Malathion is commonly applied to control mosquitoes and other insects, and pharmaceutical grades are approved for killing head lice. Both products are controversial but considered safe for commercial use in the United States.
At last count, wild frogs with missing or extra hind limbs have been observed in at least 43 states and five Canadian provinces. Earlier studies clearly implicated the trematode parasite but left open the question of what might be causing the apparent increase in the problem.
The latest study, by ecologist Joseph Kiesecker at Pennsylvania State University and edited by UC Berkeley amphibian specialist David Wake, tries to fit in the key remaining puzzle piece. The study appears in the early edition of this week’s Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Kiesecker said his observations of the common wood frog Rana sylvatica in the wild, followed by controlled studies in his laboratory, produced “compelling” evidence that pesticides can weaken the immune system of exposed amphibians — even at very low concentrations — making the frogs more vulnerable to parasites.
The field studies showed “considerably higher rates of limb deformities where there was pesticide exposure,” Kiesecker said in an interview. “Then the lab experiments helped support the mechanism for what we saw in the field.”
He also looked at another pesticide, a synthetic chemical called esfenvalerate, but did not find the same links to growth anomalies as seen with malathion and atrazine.
For the latter two chemicals, significant effects were seen even at concentrations considered safe for drinking water by the Environmental Protection Agency.
Even these very low levels of exposure could produce “dramatic effects on the immune response” of the animals. And that, in turn, led to significantly more growth defects.
Kiesecker stopped short of endorsing any effort to further restrict use of atrazine and malathion. But he said his results underscored the importance of studying toxic chemical effects in a context approaching the complexity found in natural ecosystems.
In this case, he explained, the two farm chemicals “disturbed host-pathogen interactions” with sometimes devastating effects. But all that would be missed in traditional studies examining only the chemicals and the frogs in isolation.
Some other scientists, backed by the farm-chemical industry, challenged Kiesecker’s results. Although they said the new study was intriguing, they suggested the details couldn’t be trusted until corroborated independently.
Original Journal Article Author Information:
Joseph M. Kiesecker
Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University
208 Laboratory, University Park, PA
Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Linked to Pesticides & Chemicals
SOURCE: Annals of Oncology, 5(1):S19-S24, 1994
Introduction: Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) is a blood cancer that continues to
increase rapidly in industrialized countries. NHL is considered similar to leukemia
by many experts but is characterized by exceptionally high numbers of
“lymphoctye” white blood cells that are manufactured in the body’s lymph glands.
Below is the abstract from this article:
The epidemiology of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) was reviewed. In the United States, the annual incidence of NHL rose from 5.9 per 100,000 people in 1950 to 9.3 per 100,000 in 1975, to 13.7 in 1989. The elderly showed the greatest increase. Most of the recent increase was not attributable to acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Mortality rates due to NHL were increasing at almost 2% per year. The largest proportional increases occurred in the brain and other areas of the nervous system. Occupational studies have indicated that persons with certain jobs have an increased risk, including farmers, applicators of pesticides, grain millers, wood and forestry workers, chemists, cosmetologists, machinists, printers, and those working in the petroleum, rubber, plastics, and synthetics industries. A three to nine fold increased risk of developing NHL was noted for patients receiving treatment with alkylating agents or radiotherapy. The most extensive data related to pesticides and the occurrence of NHL suggest that exposure to phenoxy herbicides, particularly 2,4-D (94757), is linked to NHL. Flour millers exposed to fungicides and fumigant pesticides had over a four fold increased risk of NHL; long term followup indicated this risk increased to nine fold. An etiologic link between exposure to various solvents and NHL has been defined by recent studies including benzene (71432), styrene (100425), 1,3-butadiene (106990), trichlorethylene (79016), perchloroethylene (127184), creosote (8021394), lead-arsenate (10102484), formaldehyde (50000), paint thinners, and oils and greases. Recent findings also indicated an increased risk of NHL in those exposed to dusts and particles, hair dyes, and cigarette smoke. An association was noted between NHL and Helicobacter-pylori infection. Nitrate contamination of groundwater also may be linked to increased incidences of NHL.
Mosquito Repellant DEET Linked to Neurological Damage
SOURCE: Environmental News Service, May 10, 2002
DURHAM, North Carolina, May 10, 2002 (ENS) – A common ingredient in mosquito and tick repellents may be linked to some neurological problems, a new study suggests.
A Duke University Medical Center pharmacologist is recommending caution when using the insecticide DEET, after his animal studies last year found the chemical causes diffuse brain cell death and behavioral changes in rats after frequent and prolonged use
Mohamed Abou-Donia, PhD has called for further government testing of the chemical’s safety in short term and occasional use, particularly in view of Health Canada’s recent decision to ban products with more than 30 percent of the chemical.
Every year, about one-third of the U.S. population uses insect repellents containing DEET, available in more than 230 products with concentrations up to 100 percent. While the chemical’s risks to humans are still being intensely debated, Abou-Donia says his 30 years of research on pesticides’ brain effects indicate the need for caution among the general public.
His numerous studies in rats, two of them published last year, demonstrate that frequent and prolonged applications of DEET cause neurons to die in regions of the brain that control muscle movement, learning, memory and concentration. Rats treated with an average human dose of DEET – 40 milligrams per kilogram body weight – performed far worse than control rats when challenged with physical tasks requiring muscle control, strength and coordination.
Such effects are consistent with physical symptoms in humans reported in the medical literature, such as those experienced by some Gulf War veterans, said Abou-Donia.
“If used sparingly, infrequently and by itself, DEET may not have negative effects – the literature here isn’t clear,” Abou-Donia said. “But frequent and heavy use of DEET, especially in combination with other chemicals or medications, could cause brain deficits in vulnerable populations.”
Children are at particular risk for subtle brain changes caused by chemicals in the environment, because their skin more readily absorbs them, and chemicals may affect their developing nervous systems, said Abou-Donia.
Preparations like insecticide based lice killing shampoos and insect repellents are assumed to be safe because severe consequences are rare in the medical literature. Yet subtle symptoms, such as muscle weakness, fatigue or memory lapses, might be attributed to other causes in error, Abou-Donia said.
“The take home message is to be safe and cautious when using insecticides,” said Abou-Donia. “Never use insect repellents on infants, and be wary of using them on children in general. Never combine insecticides with each other or use them with other medications. Even so simple a drug as an antihistamine could interact with DEET to cause toxic side effects. Don’t spray your yard for bugs and then take medications. Until we have more data on potential interactions in humans, safe is better than sorry.”
Fetal Deaths Linked to Living Close to Agricultural Pesticide Use
During Weeks 3-8 of Pregnancy
SOURCE: Epidemiology, 12(2), March 2001
Approximately 19,000 fetal deaths (stillborn) occur each year in the United States. The causes of these deaths remains unclear. Researchers from the University of North Carolina and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) worked together in this study of over 600 children to determine what part local pesticide use plays in increasing the risk of having a late fetal death after 5 months of pregnancy. Using maps and records of pesticide use, the researchers divided mothers into categories according to how close they lived to pesticide applications. If they lived within 1 mile of an agricultural pesticide application that occurred between weeks 3-8 of gestation they were considered as “exposed.” Weeks 3-8 during pregnancy were selected since this is the critical period in which formation of organs and limbs are occurring. Results of this study showed there was approximately 2-fold greater risk of having a stillbirth if the mother lived within 1 mile from an agricultural area which used organophosphate – pyrethroid – carbamate – or chlorinated pesticides. Primary defects which contributed to the death of the child were urinary system and multiple congenital anomalies.
CHEM-TOX COMMENT: This research is particularly important because it is the first to determine risk if limiting exposure to the 3-8 week gestational period, thereby demonstrating true risk to pregnant mothers in schools, homes, offices and neighborhood mosquito control projects. Other studies would have diluted results since they have been done on a trimester basis. Also of great concern is the increased risk stated here for having a stillborn child after exposure to pyrethroid pesticides. Pyrethroid based pesticides are the main pesticide used for mosquito control truck applications and should therefore, raise concerns regarding exposure to pregnant women living in mosquito spray areas.
This is not the first study to find a link between pesticides and fetal defects – another study reported in Epidemiology, 10:60, 1999, found pregnant mothers had a 70% increased risk for congenital defects if home pesticides were used or if living within a quarter-mile of an agricultural crop during the month before conception and the first trimester of pregnancy.
Erin M. Bell
James J. Beaumont
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina
National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland
Neuroblastoma Linked to Homes Treated with Pesticides
SOURCE: Epidemiology: 12(1):20-26, January, 2001
One of the largest studies to date has found that pesticide use around the home can more than double the chance of a child developing neuroblastoma.
Neuroblastoma accounts for approximately 10% of all childhood tumors. There are 550 new cases in the United States each year, with an annual incidence rate of 9.2 cases per million children under 15 years of age. This works out to approximately 1 per 100,000 children under age 15 on a national level. (These rates were reported in the book “Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology, Lippincott-Raven, 1997). It is a very serious cancer as approximately 60% of children over age 1 who develop neuroblastoma do not live 3 years even when receiving treatments of radiation and chemotherapy. Children under age 1 have a more positive prognosis. As statistics show that neuroblastoma rates have increased over the past 50 years, it is reasonable to assume environmental factors may be involved.
One of the largest collaborative efforts among 7 Universities and medical facilities worked together to determine what extent pesticide use in the home could increase child neuroblastoma rates. 390 neuroblastoma children and 460 non-cancer controls were included in the study. Investigators questioned both parents regarding use of pesticides in and around the home.
Results showed that using pesticides in and around the home resulted in a 60% increased likelihood of children developing the disease (Odds Ratio=1.6). Looking at pesticide use for the lawn and garden only resulted in an increased risk of 120% (Odds Ratio=2.2) when the mother had applied pesticides in the yard and 50% higher (Odds Ratio=1.5) when the father had applied pesticides in the yard. (Chem-Tox Note: Outdoor pesticides are much different from indoor pesticides as they include fungicides and herbicides some of which have been reported to contain dioxin).
Julie L. Daniels, Andrew F. Olshan, Kay Teschke, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Dave A. Savitz, Julie Blatt, Melissa L. Bondy, Joseph P. Neglia, Brad H. Pollock, Susan L. Cohn, A. Thomas Look, Robert C. Seeger, Robert P. Castleberry
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, University of British Columbia, University of Texas, University of Minnesota, University of Florida, Northwestern University, Department of Experimental Oncology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital and University of Alabama
Pesticide Exposure Increases Miscarriage Risk
SOURCE: Epidemiology, March 2001
Living close to areas where agricultural pesticides are applied may increase the risk of fetal death from birth defects according to research conducted at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The study, which involved almost 700 women in 10 California counties, showed an increased risk of death among developing babies. Mothers who lived near crops where certain pesticides were sprayed faced a 40 to 120 percent increase in risk of miscarriage due to birth defects.
“Our study showed a consistent pattern with respect to timing of exposure,” said Dr. Erin Bell, who earned her doctorate with the research at the University of North Carolina (UNC) School of Public Health. “The largest risks for fetal death due to birth defects were from pesticide exposure during the third week to the eighth week of pregnancy.”
“The risks appeared to be strongest among pregnant women who lived in the same square mile where pesticides were used,” she said.
“This is the first study to our knowledge of pesticides and pregnancy in which exposures were in close proximity to the subjects and the verification of pesticide use was objective, not relying on people’s memories of what they might have been exposed to,” Hertz-Picciotto said.
About 19,000 fetal deaths occur in the United States each year, and the causes remain a significant public health problem, Bell said. Among known risk factors are smoking, advanced age among pregnant women and previous history of fetal deaths.
Erin Bell (Ph.D.)
University of North Carolina
School of Public Health
Indoor Pesticide Use Increases Child Cancer Rates
SOURCE: CANCER:89:11, 2000
(An International Publication of the American Cancer Society)
Children who have been exposed to household insecticides and professional extermination methods within the home are three to seven times more likely to develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) compared with children who have not been exposed to pesticides. These are the results of a study published in the December 1, 2000 issue of the journal CANCER, an international publication of the American Cancer Society. The study indicated that a child’s risk of developing NHL was similar for both maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy (in utero) and direct (postnatal) exposure to pesticides. Significant variations in risk were associated with various NHL morphologies. For instance, the use of household insecticides increased the risk of lymphoblastic lymphoma by 12.5 times. The term “pesticides” refers to a group of chemicals that have in common their ability to kill insects, plants, mammals (particularly rodents), or fungi.
“A limited number of these compounds may be capable of inducing lymphoma, particularly when used around the home,” comments chief researcher Jonathan D. Buckley, M.B.B.S., Ph.D., from the Department of Preventative Medicine at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. Lymphoma, the third most common childhood malignancy, occurs at a rate of 21.7 per million in children age < 15 years. Approximately 60% of these cases are NHL. In the current study, the Children's Cancer Group evaluated the correlation between home pesticide use or occupational exposure to pesticides and the incidence of NHL in a pediatric study sample.
The study included children and adolescents age < 20 years who were diagnosed with NHL between February 1986 and June 1990. Tumors were classified according to cell type (predominantly B-cell or T-cell). Telephone interviews with the participants' mothers included questions regarding occupational and home exposure to pesticides around the time of pregnancy and direct exposure of the child to pesticides. From a total of 268 NHL pediatric cases examined, 49 of the patients had lymphomatous leukemia, whereas the other 218 patients were diagnosed with various NHL morphologies, including lymphoblastic subtype (38%), Burkitt lymphoma (28%), undifferentiated (non-Burkitt) lymphoma (12%), and large-cell NHL (19%). Frequency of household insecticide use by the mothers around the time of the pregnancy (in utero) was associated with a 2.62-fold greater risk of NHL for limited applications (1-2 days per week), compared with a 7.33-fold greater risk for regular use (on most days). Professional home extermination was related to a 3-fold greater risk for developing NHL. Direct (postnatal) exposure of the child to pesticides was associated with a 2.4-fold greater risk, whereas occupational exposure and the use of pesticide sprays in the garden demonstrated an increased risk, although not statistically significant. When the researchers focused their analysis on the association between different types of pesticide exposure and the development of different NHL morphologies, they observed the risk for developing lymphoblastic lymphoma was 12.5 times greater after a child's exposure to household insecticide use. The risk of developing Burkitt lymphoma was observed to be 9.6 times greater after occupational exposure to pesticides. The risk for developing large cell lymphoma or Burkitt lymphoma was 6.7 and 8.0 times higher, respectively, after professional insect extermination. The authors note that the most statistically significant correlation between exposure to pesticides and the risk for developing NHL were observed for those children who were directly exposed to pesticides. The risk for developing lymphoblastic subtype lymphoma and large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 10.9 times and 6.5 times greater, respectively, for these children compared with children who have not been exposed to pesticides. The researchers also noted a 7.1 times greater risk for Burkitt lymphoma among these children. Overall elevations in the risk associated with pesticide exposure were present for both the younger (age 6 years) study participants.
Jonathan D Buckley, M.B.B.S. Ph.D.
Anna T. Meadows, M.D.
Marshall E. Kadin, M.D.
Michelle M. Le Beau, Ph.D.
Stuart Siegel, M.D.
Leslie L. Robinson, Ph.D.
Evidence Suggests Child Brain Development Harm During Pregnancy from Common Pesticide Chlorpyrifos (Dursban)
SOURCE: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 134, 53-62, 1995
Chem-Tox Comment: During the past 30 years there has been an alarming rise in the rates of children exhibiting various forms of subtle brain damage including – learning disabilities – autism – and attention deficit disorder. Understanding that the human brain begins growing at over 4,000 cells per second beginning in the 4th week of pregnancy demonstrates the importance of having a non-contaminated biological environment in order to attain maximum brain growth quality. The following research was conducted at the Department of Pharmacology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. The first paragraph below is taken from the abstract of the original research.
“Researchers administered chlorpyrifos to neonatal rats in apparently subtoxic doses that caused no mortality and little or no weight deficits and examined developing brain regions (cerebellum, forebrain, brainstem) for signs of interference with cell development. One day old rats given 2 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos showed significant inhibition of DNA synthesis in all brain regions within 4 hours of treatment; equivalent results were obtained when a small dose (0.6 ug) was introduced directly into the brain via intracisternal injection, indicating that the actions were not secondary to systemic toxicity. Inhibition of DNA synthesis was also seen at 8 days of age; however, at this point, there was regional selectivity, with sparing of the cerebellum… These results indicate that low doses of chlorpyrifos target the developing brain during the critical period in which cell division is occurring, effects which may produce eventual cellular, synaptic, and behavioral aberrations after repeated or prolonged subtoxic exposures.”
In summary the researchers stated,
“In extrapolating findings in the developing rat brain to man, it is important to note that the first 10 days of postnatal life in the rat represent stages of neurodevelopment corresponding to the last trimester of gestation in man; thus, our finding of a much greater sensitivity to chlorpyrifos in the neonate, in terms of both systemic toxicity and targeting of DNA and protein synthesis within the brain, emphasize the need for caution in assigning safety standards. Further study of acute and chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos should be undertaken to evaluate the cellular, synaptic, and behavioral consequences of low-level exposures.
K. D. Whitney, F. J. Seidler, T.A. Slotin
Department of Pharmacology
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, North Carolina
Common Weed Killer (Roundup) Shows Evidence of
Environmental and Health Problems
SOURCE: Organic Gardening, July, 2000
See the complete article at the “Organic Gardening” web site
Thousands and thousands of acres in the United States are being sprayed annually with nearly 50 million pounds of Roundup, a broad-spectrum herbicide designed to kill any plant it hits, unless the plant has been genetically altered to tolerate the chemical. Roundup has accounted for half of Monsanto’s corporate profits in recent years. Now the company has expanded its Roundup market by genetically engineering “Roundup Ready” soybeans, corn, and other crops. Monsanto’s advertising campaigns have convinced many people that Roundup is safe, but the facts simply do not support that conclusion. Independent scientific studies have shown that Roundup is toxic to earthworms, beneficial insects, birds and mammals. Plus it destroys the vegetation on which they depend for food and shelter. And although Monsanto claims that Roundup breaks down into harmless substances, it has been found to be extremely persistent, with residue absorbed by subsequent crops over a year after application. Roundup show adverse effects in all standard categories of toxicological testing, including medium-term toxicity, long-term toxicity, genetic damage, effects on reproduction, and carcinogenicity. Here is some of the research that demonstrates the ways that Roundup’s active ingredient, glyphosate, adversely affects plants and animals:
In a study conducted by T.B. Moorman and colleagues at the USDA Southern Weed Science Laboratory in Stoneville, Mississippi, glyphosate reduced soybeans’ and clover’s ability to fix nitrogen. A study conducted by G.S. Johal and J.E. Rahe of the Center for Pest Management at Simon Frase University in Burnaby, British Columbia, found that glyphosate made bean plants more susceptible to disease. At Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, D. Estok and colleagues found that glyphosate reduces the growth of beneficial soil-dwelling mycorrhizal fungi. Moving up to mammals, sperm production in rabbits was diminished by 50 percent when they were exposed to glyphosate, in research conducted by M.I. Youset and colleagues at the University of Alexandria in Egypt and the University of Tromso in Norway. Brand-new evidence suggests that Roundup may cause cancer. The study, published in Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis (vol. 31 pp. 55-59, 1998), found that an unidentified chemical in Roundup caused genetic damage in the livers and kidneys of mice exposed to the herbicide. The researchers believe additional experiments are needed to determine which chemical in the Roundup mixture is causing the damage. They point out that this will be very difficult because “the precise composition of the mixture…is not available due to protection by patent regulation.” In other words, Monsanto doesn’t have to reveal to the public exactly what chemicals are in Roundup. In California, where pesticide-related illness must be reported, Roundup’s active ingredient (glyphosate) was the third most commonly reported cause of pesticide illness among agricultural workers, and the most common cause of pesticide illness in landscape workers. According to two New Zealand toxicologists, the symptoms experienced by workers exposed to Roundup included eye and skin irritation, headaches, nausea and heart palpitations.
Parkinson’s Disease Mortality Higher in Agricultural Areas
SOURCE: Biochem Soc Trans, 28(2):81-4, 2000
BACKGROUND: In the last two decades reports from different countries emerged associating pesticide and herbicide use with Parkinson’s disease (PD). California growers use approximately 250 million pounds of pesticides annually, about a quarter of all pesticides used in the US. METHODS: We employed a proportional odds mortality design to compare all cases of PD recorded as underlying (1984-1994) or associated causes (1984-1993) of death occurring in California with all deaths from ischaemic heart disease (ICD-9 410-414) during the same period. Based on pesticide use report data we classified California counties into several pesticide use categories. Agricultural census data allowed us to create measures of percentage of land per county treated with pesticides. Employing logistic regression models we estimated the effect of pesticide use controlling for age, gender, race, birthplace, year of deaths, and education. RESULTS: Mortality from PD as the underlying cause of death was higher in agricultural pesticide-use counties than in non-use counties. A dose response was observed for insecticide use per county land treated when using 1982 agricultural census data, but not for amounts of restricted pesticides used or length of residency in a country prior to death. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show an increased PD mortality in California counties using agricultural pesticides. Unless all of our measures of county pesticide use are surrogates for other risk factors more prevalent in pesticide use counties, it seems important to target this prevalent exposure in rural California in future studies that use improved case finding mechanisms and collect pesticide exposure data for individuals.
Ritz B, Yu F
Department of Epidemiology
Center for Occupational and Environmental Health
School of Public Health, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772, USA.
Parkinson’s Disease Linked to Pesticide Combination
SOURCE: Journal of Neuroscience, December 15, 2000
Article below was reported by Maggie Fox
Health Correspondent for the Reutger’s News Service
To see the original article on Yahoo – Click Here
A combination of two commonly used agricultural pesticides, when injected into mice, causes the same pattern of brain damage seen in Parkinson’s disease, researchers said on Thursday.
Mice given the herbicide paraquat and the fungicide maneb showed clear signs of Parkinson’s, a progressive and incurable brain illness, Deborah Cory-Slechta and colleagues at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry said.
But neither chemical alone works to create the distinctive pattern of brain damage.
The findings add to a growing body of evidence that exposure to chemicals such as pesticides may at least contribute to the brain damage seen in Parkinson’s.
“No one has looked at the effects of studying together some of these compounds that, taken by themselves, have little effect,” Cory-Slechta said in a statement.
“This has enormous implications.”
Dr. Eric Richfield, a neurologist who worked on the study, said it may mean that no one will ever be able to predict who is at risk of Parkinson’s based on exposure to chemicals.
“There is no way to add up how much of any chemical someone is exposed to,”
Richfield said in a telephone interview.
“There are so many agents and everybody is a little different. Person A may
have no reaction to a particular compound. How do you test for interactions
between two agents?”
Parkinson’s disease, which affects an estimated 500,000 people in the United States alone, is a progressive and incurable disease that involves the destruction of brain cells that produce dopamine, an important message-carrying chemical linked with movement.
Patients start out with tremors and can become paralyzed and die. There is no cure and treatments can delay the disease for a while but eventually stop working.
Perhaps the best-known patient is Pope John Paul (news – web sites) II, whose doctor admitted on Wednesday the pontiff had the disease. Actor Michael J. Fox also has Parkinson’s, and boxer Muhammad Ali has symptoms of the disease.
Researchers suspect that a combinations of genetic vulnerability and exposure to something in the environment may be responsible. One major suspect is organophosphate pesticides, which are known to affect the nervous system.
Writing in the Dec. 15 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience, Cory-Slechta’s team said they studied the effects of a mixture of paraquat and maneb. Both are used on millions of acres of crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, lettuce, corn, soybeans, cotton and fruit.
Mice injected with one or the other alone showed no ill effects, but when the combination was given they showed clear patterns of brain damage.
The mice moved around much less than normal and had lower levels of an enzyme known as tyrosine hydroxylase that is used as a measure of the health of the dopamine system.
The mice had nearly four times as many “reactive astrocytes,” brain cells that suggest they are damaged, they had about 15 percent fewer dopamine neurons, and they produced 15 percent less dopamine than normal mice.
Richfield says his team now plans to test mice genetically engineered to be susceptible to the Parkinson’s-like damage, and they may test whether giving the chemicals orally has the same effect.
He thinks one chemical may act to make the other more damaging. “It could have to do with the uptake of paraquat,” he said.
“If given systemically (as in an injection), very little gets into the brain. It is possible the maneb compound is promoting transport into the brain, therefore giving the mice a greater dosage to the brain. That is something we are planning to experimentally determine.”
University of Rochester School of Medicine
Prostate Cancer Risk Doubles in Pesticide Applicators
SOURCE: Occupational Environmental Medicine, 56(1):14-21, 1999
OBJECTIVES: Although the primary hazard to humans associated with pesticide exposure is acute poisoning, there has been considerable concern surrounding the possibility of cancer and other chronic health effects in humans. Given the huge volume of pesticides now used throughout the world, as well as environmental and food residue contamination leading to chronic low level exposure, the study of possible chronic human health effects is important.
METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study, analysed by general standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of licensed pesticide applicators in Florida compared with the general population of Florida. A cohort of 33,658 (10% female) licensed pesticide applicators assembled through extensive data linkages yielded 1874 deaths with 320,250 person-years from 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1993.
RESULTS: Among male applicators, prostate cancer mortality (SMR 2.38 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.83 to 3.04) was significantly increased. No cases of soft tissue sarcoma were confirmed in this cohort, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma was not increased. The number of female applicators was small, as were the numbers of deaths. Mortality from cervical cancer and breast cancer was not increased. Additional subcohort and exposure analyses were performed.
Fleming LE, Bean JA, Rudolph M, Hamilton K
Mortality in a cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Florida.
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, USA.
Living Near Agriculture Increases Risk of Brain Cancer
SOURCE: American Journal of Public Health, 86(9): 1289-96, 1996
Living closer than 2600 feet to an agriculture area has been found to increase the risk for developing brain cancer. This 1996 research project studied cancer rates among over 600 people. Brain cancer overall showed a twofold increase risk for people living within the 2600 foot distance. An astounding 6.7 fold increased risk was found for the brain cancer type known as astrocytoma for people living within 2600 feet from an agriculture area. For more information on brain cancer and neuroblastoma see:
http://www.chem-tox.com/cancerchildren.- brain cancer research summaries
http://www.chem-tox.com/neuroblastoma – neuroblastoma research summaries
Drs. A. Aschengrau, D. Ozonoff, P.Coogan, R. Vezina, T. Heeren
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Boston University School of Public Health
Golf Course Superintendents Face Higher Cancer Rates
SOURCE: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 29(5):501-506, 1996
Working as a Golf Course Superintendent has been found to significantly increase the risk of dying of four cancer types including – brain cancer, lymphoma (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, NHL), prostate and large intestine cancer. A study was conducted of 686 deceased members of the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America from all U.S. states who died between 1970 and 1992. Brain cancer rates for the Superintendents was found to occur at over twice the national average, while non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma also occurred at over twice the national average. Prostate cancer occurred at nearly 3 times the national average and large intestinal cancer occurred at 1.75 times the national average. The researchers stated that a similar pattern of elevated NHL, brain and prostate cancer mortality along with excess deaths from diseases of the nervous system has been noted previously among other occupational groups exposed to pesticides.
Drs. Kross, B.C., Burneister, L.F., Ogilvie, L.K., Fuortes, L.J.,
Department of Preventive Medicine Health, University of Iowa
Home Pesticides Increase Risk of Leukemia in Children
SOURCE: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, July 1987
Children who live in homes where indoor or outdoor pesticides are used face a far greater chance of developing leukemia (leukemia is a cancer of the blood). The study, published in July’s 1987 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, studied 123 Los Angeles children with leukemia and 123 children without the malignancy. The results showed the children living in the pesticide treated homes had nearly a 4 times greater risk of developing the disease. If the children lived in homes where pesticides were used in the garden as well, the risk of developing leukemia was 6.5 times greater. All of the children in the study were 10 years of age or younger.
Dr. John Peters
University of Southern California
Pesticide Vapors Present – Weeks – Months – Years after Application
In research to determine the amount of indoor air contamination following routine indoor application of pesticides, it was found the levels of the pesticide Dursban drop to only one-sixth of its original 1 hour level four days after application. The research was conducted by Dow Chemical (1). The no-odor pesticide Ficam was reported to have an air half-life of approximately 10 days (2). Of significant concern is the discovery that the pesticide soil drench procedure (a procedure in which approximately 200 gallons of pesticides are saturated into the soil just prior to the pouring of the concrete foundation in new home construction) is finding its way into the indoor air for literally years and years after application. It was originally thought that the concrete foundation provided a solid barrier to the poison. However, air testing technology has shown this is not the case (3). Just as radon finds its way into a home, entering from the soil, the pesticide vapors do also moving from the high pressure underneath the home and into the lower pressure inside the home. It enters through cracks in foundation, around plumbing fixtures, etc. This provides strong evidence that this procedure should be eliminated immediately and alternative methods be used. Alternative methods include using only concrete and metal framing – using non-volatile Sodium Borate treatment on the wood framing before installing drywall – using pesticide spikes embedded in the soil around the perimeter of the home (this is still a chemical pesticide and therefore is not a first option but may satisfy the Lenders). Other research at University of Florida has shown that larger “sand” granules do not allow termites to build their nests. Unfortunately, the pesticide industry has worked its way solidly into new home construction practices and therefore takes a little effort on the homeowner’s part to stop the pesticide soil drench procedure – (It can be done however, as it is not a law, but rather a recommended procedure in the Southern Building Code and one the lenders like to see done. Go talk to your lender personally and tell them about the alternatives and threaten to take your business somewhere else.). The bottom line is these chemicals do enter the home and they do accelerate the onset of health problems (as seen in the research on this page) including aging of the immune and nervous system and therefore should not be applied underneath the home.
We have also made a table summary on the the Indoor Air Pesticide Contamination Research.
Pest Control Technology Magazine, pg. 44, August 1987
Peter Drury (M.S.) Pesticide Telecommunication Network, Dallas, Texas 1-800-858-7378 (
This organization is partially funded by the EPA)
Indoor Air Pesticide Summary – click to see summary and references
Immune System Problems Appear
After Indoor Dursban Exposure
SOURCE: Archives of Environmental Health, 48(2):89-93, March/April 1993
The pesticide Dursban (also called chlorpyrifos), commonly used in indoor and lawn pest control, is now showing evidence of causing immune system disorders in people. In a study by the Department of Health Science at California State University, 12 individuals, which included a teacher, six housewives, a retail owner, a musician and an engineer, were studied for 1 to 4.5 years after they became ill when their home or place of employment was treated with the pesticide. The researchers were investigating for any abnormalities in immune system function. Immediately following each patient’s exposure to the pesticide, common complaints included an initial flu-like illness followed by chronic complaints of fatigue, headaches, dizziness, loss of memory, upper and lower respiratory symptoms, joint and muscle pain and gastrointestinal disturbances. The subjects were found to have an elevated number of CD26 cells and a higher rate of autoimmune problems, compared with two other control groups. (Autoimmune disorders occur when the person’s own immune system mistakenly makes antibodies which attack their own body.) Autoantibodies were found toward smooth muscle, parietal cell, brush border, thyroid gland, myelin, and ANA. 83% of the pesticide exposed people were found to have autoantibodies in their blood, in comparison to only 15% for non-exposed control group. 50% of the pesticide exposed people were also found to have two or more autoantibodies in comparison to only 4% for the non-exposed group.
In conclusion the researchers stated,
“the presence of several different types of autoantibodies, e.g., antimyelin, antismooth muscle, anti brush boarder, and antimicrosomal, indicates that generalized tissue injury has occurred. Moreover, these identical observations have been made in additional chlorpyrifos patients (research in progress). Thus, chlorpyrifos (Dursban), as used in pesticide spray, should be examined more closely as a probable immunotoxin.”
Jack D. Thrasher Ph.D., Roberta Madison, Alan Broughton
Department of Health Science, California State University
Flea Home Treatments Cause High Air Pesticide Levels
SOURCE: American Journal of Public Health, 80(6):689-693, 1990
Applying common flea pesticide treatments to carpets results in illegally high air pesticide levels in homes which lasts for over 24 hours after application. This was the conclusion of research conducted by Dr. Richard A. Fenske, Assistant Professor at Rutgers University. Tests were conducted by applying the common pesticide Chlorpyrifos (Dursban) for flea treatment by a licensed Pest Control Applicator to three rooms of an unoccupied apartment in New Jersey in June, 1987. Air sampling equipment was installed above the floor at the levels expected for an adult sitting in a chair and that of an infant. After application, samples were taken at 30 minutes, 1 hour, 1.5 hours, 3 hours, 5 hours, 7 hours and 24 hours. Results showed that at 5 hours post application, indoor air levels of the pesticide was nearly twice above the legal limit in homes with ventilation (an open window) and over 6 times above the legal limit at 7 hours where windows were closed. Levels at the infant breathing zone were nearly 10 times above the legal limit at 7 hours and over 3 times the legal limit even after 24 hours. These results show it is incorrect when Pesticide Applicators state it is safe to return home several hours after application. In fact, levels at 7 hours were 3-5 times higher than the 1.5 hour level. In conclusion the researchers stated,
“Despite uncertainties in exposure/absorption estimates and toxicological interpretation, the dose values derived in this study raise a public health concern. Broadcast applications and possibly total release aerosol/fogging applications of acutely toxic insecticides may result in dermal and respiratory exposures sufficient to cause measurable toxicological responses in infants.
Richard A. Fenske, Ph.D., MPH
Kathleen G. Black, MPH
Ken P. Elkner, MS
Department of Environmental Sciences
Graduate Program in Public Health, Rutgers University
Pesticide Inhalation Associated with Brain and Lung Cancer
SOURCE: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 71(1), July 1983
A study of 3,827 Florida pesticide applicators employed for 20 or more years found they had nearly 3 times the risk for developing lung cancer. The same study also showed the pesticide applicators had twice the risk for brain cancer. There was not any increased cancer risk when applicators were studied for only 5 years implying it takes over 5 years to accumulate enough damage to the genetic structure to develop the cancers.
Brain Damage Linked to Lawn Pesticides
SOURCE: 3 references listed below
The pesticide MCPA, used as an ingredient is some lawn pesticides, has been found to damage a part of the brain known as the blood brain barrier (1). The blood brain barrier is the brain’s primary defense system which works to keep toxic substances out of the brain cells and is literally protecting all of us from developing immediate neurological illness. The blood brain barrier has been found to be defective more often in patients with Alzheimers and some psychiatric disorders (2). In fact, the lack of functioning of the blood brain barrier in the human infant has been reported on many occasions as being the reason why an infant is being found to develop brain damage after exposure to common chemicals while an adult with a mature blood brain barrier does not. Unfortunately, EPA neurotoxicologist Dr. Bill Sette stated EPA does not yet require chemical companies to test any of their pesticides for causing blood brain barrier damage. Another study of 56 men exposed to organophosphate pesticides detected memory problems and difficulty in maintaining alertness and focusing attention (3). Each of these studies will be listed here in greater detail shortly as our web site completes development. As the understanding of blood brain barrier function is of critical importance to understanding why one individual can receive more damage to his/her nervous system than someone else, we will also include a blood brain barrier site with the address http://www.chem-tox.com/bbb.
1. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 65:23, 1982
2. British Journal of Psychiatry, 141:273, 1982
3. Annual Reviews in Public Health, 7:461, 1986
Common Birth Defects Increase After Pesticide Exposure -
Hydrocephaly & Cleft Pallet
SOURCE: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 54:363-369, 1995
Of the many different types of pesticides (which include insecticides, herbicides and fungicides), it was found that the common fungicide “cyproconazole” caused serious defects when administered to test animals. This chemical is reported to be widely used in agriculture and is a member of the family of fungicides known as triazole fungicides. It’s closely related family members include the fungicides triadimefon, triadimenol, bitertanol, flusilazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and propiconazole. Each of these pesticides were reported in this article as being capable of causing birth defects in test animals when administered at doses as low as 30 mg/kg. These chemicals are far more toxic than even standard insecticides. The “No Observable Effect Level” (which means the maximum amount of the chemical that test animals can be exposed to without seeing any adverse effects) is reported to be only 2 mg/kg for flusilazole.
The study on the effects of cyproconazole (lets call it CPZ for simplicity) was headed by Dr. K. Machera, at the Laboratory of Pesticide Toxicology in Athens, Greece. Dr. Machera exposed 10 pregnant animals to different levels of CPZ ranging from 20-75 mg/kg from the 6th to the 16th day of pregnancy. On the 21st day of pregnancy the animals were sacrificed and the number of implantations, resorption sites and live and dead fetuses were recorded. The fetuses were weighed and examined for abnormalities.
Results showed the number of resorptions (similar to an early miscarriage) was over 8 times greater for those exposed to the 50 and 75 mg/kg doses. The fetal length was significantly smaller in doses from 50 mg/kg up. The fetal body weight was significantly less even at the lowest dose of 20 mg/kg.
Cleft Pallat did not occur in any of the 100 offspring not exposed to CPZ. However, cleft pallat did occur in 2% of posed to 20 mg/kg of CPZ, 20% of posed to 50 mg/kg of CPZ and 91% of posed to the highest 100 mg/kg dose.
The same trend was also seen with hydrocephalus – 0% for the animals not exposed to CPZ, 6% for posed to 20 mg/kg, 19% for posed to 50 mg/kg, 32% for posed to 75 mg/kg and 100% for the 12 posed to the 100 mg/kg level.
These studies demonstrate the definite potential for pesticides in the triazole family to increase the risk of lower birthweight, lower body length, as well as strongly increasing the risk of cleft palate and hydrocephalus. With results such as this in test animals, it would certainly be worthwhile to investigate the incidence of these conditions among people living in close proximity to agricultural areas. Dr. Machera did not state if these chemicals were used on residential lawns as an anti-fungal agent. Keep in mind that these studies were looking for physical defects and were not looking for neurological defects in offspring (which typically occur at much lower dosages).
Dr. K. Machera
Laboratory of Pesticide Toxicology
Benaki Phytopathological Institute, Athens, Greece
Common Lawn Pesticide Linked to Cancer
The lawn pesticides, mancozeb and chlorothalonil (used by commercial lawn spray companies as fungicides), have been classified by EPA as “probable” cancer causing chemicals in humans as they have been found to cause cancer in animals (1). Mancozeb has also been found to react with sunlight to form a new compound EPA categorizes as a “known” human carcinogen (1). The common lawn pesticide 2,4-D has been shown to increase the risk of lymphatic cancer in farmers six times the normal rate according to a National Cancer Institute report (2).
Newsweek, May 16, pg.77, 1988
Science News, September 13, 1986
The Pesticide Chlordane Contaminates Most U.S. Homes
SOURCE: Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 7:527-540, 1987
There is approximately a 75% chance you are breathing the pesticide chlordane every minute you are inside your home if your home was built before March of 1988. Other studies have shown there is a 6-7% chance you are breathing dangerously high levels of the pesticide which are above the guidelines set by the National Academy of Sciences. This problem is occurring because over 30 million homes were treated with the chemical prior to its being banned by the EPA in March of 1988. The air chlordane studies were conducted by the U.S. Air Force and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Regulation. Over 1000 homes and apartments were tested in different parts of the nation. The researchers stated they expect the figures to remain the same throughout the country because of standardized application practices by the pest control companies. If you would like more detailed information on the chlordane problem and the health effects suspected for the millions of Americans living in chlordane treated homes – visit the chlordane web site by clicking this link.
Samuel S. Epstein and David Ozonoff
Chief Environmental Health Section
Boston University School of Public Health, Boston Massachusetts
Common Pesticides Cause Hyperactivity in Test Animals
After Single Dose
SOURCE: Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Vol. 11:45-50, 1989
Groups of test posed to different pesticides used in agriculture and lawn care showed over 50% more activity following a single exposure to the chemical. One of the main goals of this experiment, conducted by Dr. J. A. Mitchell and colleagues at the University of Michigan, was to investigate activity behavioral changes in test animals (male Swiss mice) following a single exposure to one of 4 different dosages of weed killers and fungicides. The chemicals used included Lasso (containing alachlor), Basalin (containing fluchloralin), Premiere (containing dinoseb) and the fungicide Maneb-80 (80% Maneb).. Test dosages ranged from a very low .4 mg/kg to 4 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg. Even the largest dose was still below the LD-50 for the animals (the amount needed to kill 50% of the test animals). According to the researchers, the herbicides and fungicides have received few reports investigating their toxicity while their yearly growth and production have grown far more than the insecticides.
The detection of hyperactivity was measured by placing the test animals in steel cages that were equipped with electronic motion detectors which used infrared beams to count specific movements by the animals. After the single chemical exposure, activity was measured for a 4 hour period. Results showed the weed killer “Lasso” did not show any effects at the very low .4 mg/kg level but did show over a 65% increase in activity at the low 4 mg/kg and a 75% increase at the higher 40 mg/kg level. The weed killer Dinoseb also showed no activity increases at the lowest .4 mg/kg dose but did show a 15% increase at the 4 mg/kg level and a 54% increase at the larger 40 mg/kg level. Other researchers have reported that activity provides a sensitive measure for evaluating the behavioral effects of the pyrethroid pesticide, deltamethrin, at doses that did not cause the characteristic neurotoxicological syndrome (6).
In conclusion the researchers stated,
“The results of this study suggest that at least some herbicides, in addition to pyrethrins, organophosphate, and carbamate pesticides, can produce behavioral manifestations following accidental exposure…The effects of the pesticides on activity also support the hypothesis that these agents may affect the central nervous system.”
Dr. J. A. Mitchell, S. F. Long
Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Mississippi
The Behavioral Effects of Pesticides in Male Mice
Chlordane Causes Neurological Disorders and A.D.D. Symptoms
SOURCE: Environmental Health Perspectives, 103:690-694, 1995
In 1987, over 250 adults and children were exposed to the pesticide chlordane when the wooden building surfaces and soil around their apartment complex was sprayed. Their exposure came from the vapors that entered into their home for the years after the chemical’s application. Levels inside the homes were reported above 0.5 mg/m3.
In June-September 1994, 216 adult occupants or former residents of the apartment complex were examined by researchers at the University of Southern California School of Medicine in Los Angeles. The 109 women and 97 men were given a battery of neurological tests to determine if the low levels of chlordane in their apartments was causing any harmful effects. The tests given are considered sensitive indicators of neurotoxicity. To determine if chlordane was in fact causing neurological problems, the test scores of the chlordane exposed adults were compared to the test scores of 94 women and 68 men from Houston, known not to have been exposed to chlordane.
Results of the testing showed many negative effects upon mental function from the low levels of air chlordane. Not only were test scores lower for reaction time, balance, and memory, but also worse scores were observed in the test checking for attention deficits (digit symbol) and all tests of mood scores including tension, depression, anger, vigor and fatigue.
Going beyond the neurological testing, both groups were also investigated for many common symptoms and illnesses. Those which were significantly more common in the chlordane exposed group included asthma, allergies, production of phlegm, chronic bronchitis by Medical Research Council criteria, and wheezing with and without shortness of breath. Headaches and indigestion were also more common among the chlordane exposed individuals.
In summary Dr. Kilburn and Thornton summarized their findings by stating,
“The exposure of our study group appears to be from indoor air, due to the outgassing of chlordane from the wooden surfaces of the apartment complex… Examination of subjects exposed in their homes to chlordane as compared to referent subjects showed significant, and we suggest important, impairment of both the neurophysiological and psychological functions including mood states. Accompanying these changes were significant differences in symptom frequency and in respiratory rheumatic and cardiovascular disease symptoms. The most notable changes were slowing of reaction time, balance dysfunction as revealed by increased sway speed, reduction in cognitive function, perceptual motor speed, and immediate and delayed verbal recall… The neurobehavioral impairments measured in this environmental epidemiological study were similar to those noted in patients exposed to chlordane at home. These impairments include probably irreversible dysfunction of the brain. Possible effects on trigeminal nerve-pons-facial nerve function were suggested for the first time. Confirmatory studies, including follow-up after removal from exposure, are urgently needed. Meanwhile, chlordane use should be prohibited worldwide.”
CHEM-TOX COMMENT: This study should generate heightened concern because of the large number of neurological and health effects seen at chlordane air levels of above 0.5m g/m3 (typical levels for most U.S. homes) and statements by researchers that developing children are harmed more by chemicals than adults. For more information on the chlordane problem and the health effects of living in a chlordane treated home – visit the chlordane web site by clicking this link.
Dr. Kaye H. Kilburn and John C. Thornton
Environmental Sciences Laboratory
University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles
Male Infertility After Pesticide Chlordane Exposure
SOURCE: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 39:434-442, 1987
In the following study, researchers divided mice into three groups of ten mice each. Two groups were subjected to either a low or higher level of chlordane and the third group was used as a control group not exposed to any chlordane. After 30 days of daily exposure, the animals were sacrificed and the testicles were examined. The researchers stated that the chlordane exposed groups showed obvious changes to the part of the testicles where sperm development occurs (called the seminiferous tubules). Damaged tubules were present in 19% of the lower chlordane exposed animals – 31% of the higher chlordane exposed animals and only 3% in the animals not exposed to chlordane. There was also a reduction in the seminiferous tubule diameter in the higher chlordane exposed group. More details of this research can be seen at the infertility web site
Dr. K. J. Balash, M. A. Al-Omar, et al.
Biological Research Center, Scientific Research Council, Baghdad, Iraq
Pet Bladder Cancer Linked to Home Pesticide Use
SOURCE: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health; 28 (4). 1989. 407-414
A case-control study of household dogs was conducted to determine if exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke and chemicals in the home, use of topical insecticides, and obesity are associated with the occurrence of bladder cancer. Information was obtained by interview from owners of 59 dogs with transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder and 71 age- and breed size-matched control dogs with other chronic diseases or neoplasms. Bladder cancer risk was unrelated to sidestream cigarette smoke and household chemical exposures. Risk was significantly increased by topical insecticide use. When dogs were given 1-2 topical pesticide applications per year, there was a 60% increased risk of bladder cancer. When animals were given more than 2 pesticide applications per year there was a 3.5 times increased risk for the animal developing bladder cancer (chitrend; p = .008). This risk was enhanced in overweight or obese dogs. Further studies of this canine model may facilitate identification of specific carcinogens present in insecticides commonly used on pet animals and in the environment.
Department of Pathobiology
Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907
Pet Bladder Cancer Linked to Lawn Pesticide Applications
SOURCE: Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association, April 15, 2004.
Below is a summary from Reuters News (April 24, 2004)
A study that links lawn chemicals to bladder cancer in Scottish terriers could help shed light on whether they cause cancer in some people, U.S. researchers said on Tuesday.
Purdue University researchers surveyed 83 owners of Scottish terriers whose pets had recently been diagnosed with bladder cancer for their report, published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association.
“The risk … was found to be between four and seven times more likely in exposed animals,” said Larry Glickman, professor of epidemiology and environmental medicine in Purdue’s School of Veterinary Medicine.
“While we hope to determine which of the many chemicals in lawn treatments are responsible, we also hope the similarity between human and dog genomes will allow us to find the genetic predisposition toward this form of cancer found in both Scotties and certain people.”
Glickman and his colleagues earlier found that Scotties are about 20 times more likely to develop bladder cancer than other breeds.
“These dogs are more sensitive to some factors in their environment,” Glickman said in a statement. “As pets tend to spend a fair amount of time in contact with plants treated with herbicides and insecticides, we decided to find out whether lawn chemicals were having any effect on cancer frequency.”
The National Cancer Institute says about 38,000 men and 15,000 women are diagnosed with bladder cancer each year. Humans and animals often share genes that can predispose them to cancer.
“If such a gene exists in dogs, it’s likely that it exists in a similar location in the human genome,” Glickman said. “Finding the dog gene could save years in the search for it in humans and could also help us determine which kids need to stay away from lawn chemicals.”
Glickman’s team plans to survey children, as well as dogs, in households that have treated lawns and compare the chemicals in their urine samples with those from households with untreated lawns.
“It’s important to find out which lawn chemicals are being taken up by both children and animals,” he said.
Pesticides Blamed for Higher Cancer Rates
SOURCE: Winnipeg CBC News – June 7, 2004
WINNIPEG – Doctors at a weekend conference in Winnipeg say there is a disturbing trend when it comes to the rising rate of certain cancers. They say pesticides are to blame for the increase – especially in childhood cancers. Steve Rauh chairs the environment committee for the Social Planning Council of Winnipeg. He says 70 per cent of the toxins we are exposed to come from the foods we eat. He wants to see policy changes that would encourage organic farming. “Our department of agriculture does not provide the kind of support to organic farming that it ought to be providing,” he says. The Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment has taken a strong position against municipalities using pesticides. It has also written papers on climate change.
Infertility Problems from Pesticide Exposure
SOURCE: Science: Thursday, June 2, 2005
Parents exposed to pesticides may be damaging their children’s chance of having their own children. The study, published in the journal Science, involved exposing rats to two common agricultural chemicals – the fungicide vinclozolin and the pesticide methoxychlorthat. Both are chemically related to natural hormones, and have been tentatively implicated in reproductive disorders in both animals and humans. When the rats gave birth, their male offspring tended to have low sperm counts and low fertility. None of that was a surprise. But what did surprise researchers was the fact that when these males did manage to reproduce, their offspring also had low sperm counts. And so did the generation after that – more than 90% of the males in each generation were affected.
If the same effect occurs in humans – a reasonable hypothesis – it could imply that keeping poisons out of the environment becomes even more important than previously realized. Michael K. Skinner, director of the University’s Center for Reproductive Biology, suggests that that the new findings on toxin damage being transmitted across generations could even help explain the dramatic rise in breast and prostate cancer in recent decades as partly due to the cumulative effect of various toxins over several generations.
Thanks to Herbs2000.com for this info-
Organs that participate in detoxifying the body are the liver, colon, kidneys, lungs, and skin. During times of stress and acute overload, cleansing procedures will help restore optimal function of these organs. In addition, before beginning any detoxification program it is imperative to be certain that these organs are functioning adequately. If anyone of them is not performing well, there will be blockages in the detoxification process that will result in increased symptoms.
Although they are not organs, the lymph system and blood participate in detoxification. In many people, they are overloaded and in need of cleansing, which will improve both their detoxification efficiency and the health of the person.
It is helpful to consult a healthcare practitioner before beginning an organ cleanse to be certain your body is ready for and can handle these procedures. It is particularly important that the kidneys are capable of processing the increased load they will have to excrete, and most people will need to do the kidney cleanse first.
Massage helps to cleanse the liver. While lying flat on your back, using your flat fingertips, gently massage the liver area with clockwise circular motions. If soreness persists or if there is marked tenderness, you should consult a qualified professional.
Liver flushes stimulate the elimination of stored toxic wastes from the body, increase bile flow, and improve liver function.
Mix fresh-squeezed orange, grapefruit, and lemon or lime juices to make 1 cup of liquid. The mixture should taste sour. Add 1 to 2 cloves of fresh garlic and a small amount of fresh ginger juice. (Grate the ginger on a vegetable grater and squeeze the fibers in a garlic press.) Stir in 1 Tbsp. of olive oil and drink.
Follow the liver flush mixture with the following tea:
1 part fennel
1 part fenugreek
1 part flax
1/4 part burdock
1/4 part licorice
Use 1 ounce of the herb mixture to 20 ounces of water and simmer for 20 minutes, then add 1 part peppermint. Steep for 10 more minutes.
For additional soothing properties, add 1/2 part marshmallow root (sliced and shredded) to the initial herb blend.
One of the best liver cleansers is a coffee enema. Coffee enemas were listed in folk literature for years as a method of helping the body rid itself of toxins and accumulated waste products. They were listed in the Merck Manual until 1977, when they were removed for lack of space. After pharmaceuticals became the main focus of medicine in the 1920s, coffee enemas were seldom used. In the past 10 to 15 years, however, their usefulness has again been recognized.
A coffee enema is a low-volume enema that stays in the sigmoid colon, the S-shaped last section of the large intestine. A special circulatory system exists between the sigmoid colon and the liver, called the enterohepatic circulation system. When the stool reaches the sigmoid colon, it is full of decomposed material and toxins. These toxins are sent directly to the liver for detoxification rather than being circulated throughout the body.
The caffeine in the coffee is the active ingredient in a coffee enema. Given rectally, it helps detoxify the liver and emulsifies fat. While coffee enemas do promote cleansing of the intestines as well as the liver and gallbladder, they are used primarily to clean the liver and gallbladder.
A coffee enema:
increases the peristaltic action of the intestines, and speeds up the emptying of the bowel.
makes the toxins accumulated in the bile ducts empty, allowing other toxins in the body to filter into the liver for detoxification.
increases the emptying speed of the liver ducts holding detoxified materials, speeding the detoxification process.
encourages the removal of gallstones in the bile.
stimulates the production of the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase, which makes the liver detoxification pathways function.
breaks down accumulated fat in the liver cells.
clears chemical overloads and chemical reactions.
helps the body cope with chemotherapy and side effects caused by toxic overload from destruction of cells.
Minerals and electrolytes are not washed out by coffee enemas. The important nutrients have already been absorbed higher in the bowel, long before the food residue reaches the sigmoid colon.
Unsulfured molasses is used in the coffee enema to aid with retention and increase detoxification efficiency.
Preparing the Enema
Bring 1 quart of tolerated water to a boil in the stainless-steel or glass pot. Add 2 flat Tbsp. of coffee and continue to boil for 5 minutes. Turn off the heat and leave the pan on the burner. Add 1 Tbsp. of unsulfured molasses. Cool to a tepid temperature that feels comfortable to the touch. Never use the coffee mixture hot or steaming.
Strain, then pour half the coffee mixture into the measuring cup, being careful not to let the coffee grounds go into the cup. Put the enema bag in the sink and clamp off the tubing.
Pour the coffee mixture into the enema bag, then release the clamp long enough to allow the liquid to run to the end of the enema tube. Hang the enema bag 24 to 30 inches above the floor. A doorknob makes a good hanger. Do not hang it any higher, or fluid will be forced too high into the intestine. Cover the area on which you are going to lie with old towels to prevent staining.
Taking the Enema
Lie down on the floor and gently insert the nozzle or catheter. If you need lubrication, use only food-grade vegetable oil, K- Y jelly, or vitamin E. Do not use Vaseline or other petroleum jelly products, which are toxic.
Release the clamp and let the coffee mixture flow slowly in. Clamp off the tubing as soon as there is any sensation of fullness.
If you can do so, retain the enema for 10 minutes. Do not force yourself to hold it if an uncomfortable feeling develops.
Clamp the tubing and remove the nozzle or catheter, and empty your bowel.
After emptying the bowel, repeat the procedure with the remaining half of the coffee mixture. If you cannot hold half of the enema mixture, take three or four small enemas.
When the gallbladder’s bile duct empties, you will hear or feel a squirting under the right ribcage, or in that general area. Once you feel this, you should not take any more enemas that day.
If, after a week of daily enemas, you have not felt or heard the gallbladder release its bile, you may need to:
increase the strength of the coffee 1 tsp. per quart at a time, but do not exceed 2 Tbsp. per cup.
take slightly larger volume enemas with each half.
take three enemas of 2 cups each or less.
Coffee enemas can be used without the unsulfured molasses if tolerance is a problem. However, after taking the enemas for several weeks, you will probably be able to safely add it.
Most people do not feel “wired” or hyper as a result of coffee enemas. Should you feel this way, or if you have palpitations or irregular heartbeats after a coffee enema, reduce the amount of coffee by half for a few days to a week. Caffeine blood levels have been checked on people who felt they were “wired” after a coffee enema, and caffeine was not detectable in their blood.
Coffee enemas can be used as often as needed. The usual frequency for detoxification purposes is around three times per week. Some people may need to use them daily if their toxic load is high.
Castor oil packs are extremely beneficial in cleansing the liver. Several commercially prepared liver cleansing and support products are also available.
Before you start a gallbladder cleanse, your bowels must be clean. Take an herbal laxative such as cascara sagrada or senna for two to three days before your cleanse. Also take three to four capsules of hydrangea or hyssop twice a day for about a week before this cleanse to reduce any gallstones in size and number.
Use a juice fast for two days. Do not eat on these days. Drink pure, organic, preservative-free apple juice for two days.
As a rule, apple juice starts to work on the second day. You may find small stones and/or green mud in the fecal matter. The malic acid in the apple juice helps to break down stagnant bile.
A cleansing, warm water enema may be necessary during the cleanse to alleviate nausea created by ingesting a large amount of oil at one time. This flush may be repeated in two months.
Indications that a colon cleanse would be helpful include:
Constipation: Unless you have at least one bowel movement a day and can evacuate your bowels quickly, you may need a colon cleanse.
Body and breath odor: Any unpleasant body or breath odor, or a coated tongue, can be indicative of a high toxic accumulation in the colon.
Chronic health problems: Many problems such as acne, allergies, arthritis, fatigue, gas, migraine, and recurrent bladder and vaginal infections may be caused or aggravated by a toxic colon.
Colon cleansing is a controversial method of detoxification and cleansing. There seems to be no middle viewpoint; people are either very much in favor or violently opposed. Those who favor colon cleansing feel that the health of the body reflects the health of the colon. They further believe that colon cleansing, either with enemas or colonics, is necessary for good health.
Those opposed to colon cleansing feel that it is an invasive treatment and that there is no medical reason to irrigate the colon. Homeopaths feel this method causes the loss of vital body fluids. Opponents of colon cleansing believe that proper diet, along with sufficient water and exercise, should allow you to move your bowels regularly. When the bowels function well, their natural physiological action should keep them clean.
Any cleansing method should be approached with caution, as you determine the appropriateness of a particular treatment for you. Very allergic people should be especially careful. You will have to make your own decision based on your own research.
Fasting is sometimes advocated before a colon cleanse. During a fast, your eliminative organs begin to remove concentrated and old, hard wastes, although they will not be able to eliminate all the accumulated material.
Colon cleansing may be accomplished by administering an enema, which flushes the lower intestines. Substances used in enemas include water, coffee, herbal tea, mild soap solution, meat broth, chicken soup, wheat-grass juice, barley juice, chlorophyll, oils, or other nutritional substances. The frequency of enema use depends on the person’s philosophy and tolerance. Some people take enemas once a month for preventive health maintenance. Others take a series of enemas seasonally.
Fill an enema bag with warm distilled or other tolerated water, or other liquid. Warmth allows the intestines to relax and expand.
Hang the bag 24 to 30 inches above the floor. A doorknob makes a good hanger. Cover the area on which you are going to lie with old towels.
Lying on the floor, lie on your left side or assume a knee-chest position (face down, supporting your weight on your knees and upper chest) to help water go through the colon.
Always lubricate the end of the rectal nozzle with vitamin E, food-grade vegetable oil, or K-Y jelly. Do not use petroleum jelly, which is a toxin.
Insert the tube or nozzle just inside the rectum. For a French catheter, as water begins to flow, gently insert the tube further – but never force it. The maximum tube insertion is 3 to 6 inches.
At the first urge or cramp, remove the tube and allow elimination.
Follow the warm enema with a cool water enema to stimulate peristaltic action and to soak off more material. When the intestinal muscles contract, more encrusted debris breaks off and leaves the body.
Enemas for Specific Conditions
To stimulate the liver, kidneys, spleen, and pancreas: Add 1/2 tsp. cayenne to an enema bag of water. This enema will also help stop bleeding that sometimes occurs with tissue irritation during rapid elimination.
To help eliminate parasites and Candida: Blend 1 or 2 crushed garlic buds in 1 quart of tolerated water. Strain. Add enough tepid water to fill the enema bag. Repeat once a day for three days.
To clear allergic reactions: Use 60 grams (8 level Tbsp.) of buffered vitamin C per quart of tolerated water. Allow the enema to run in very slowly and retain the fluid as long as you can comfortably do so. Caution: Never use ascorbic acid in an enema, as it is irritating to the colon.
Some colon therapists advocate the use of high colonics, using specialized equipment to deliver the cleansing solution into the colon and to pump it out. This treatment cleans the entire colon.
Great care must be taken to clean the equipment between clients. If the equipment is not properly sterilized, parasites can be passed from one person to another.
CLAY AND FIBER CLEANSE
A colon cleanse using a fibrous material, called psyllium, and clay can remove years of accumulated, caked-on material. Because it is taken orally and moves through the GI tract naturally, many people feel this is a safe, non-invasive method of cleansing the colon.
Psyllium attracts moisture into the bowel, which causes the psyllium to expand, filling the intestine. The clay absorbs toxins and helps carry them out of the colon. As it passes through the intestines, it drags out stored wastes. Do not exceed three colon cleanses per year, and wait at least two months between cleanses.
Preparing the Cleanse
Mix 1 Tbsp. of the liquid bentonite in the pint jar with 4 ounces of tolerated water. (If you cannot find a liquid bentonite solution, you may make your own by dissolving 2 ounces of bentonite clay in 1 quart of tolerated water. Shake well and allow to stand for 12 hours.) Then add 1 Tbsp. of psyllium husks. Cover and shake well.
Taking the Cleanse
Drink the mixture quickly after you shake it. The longer it stands, the more it will clump. Follow with 8 ounces of pure, tolerated water. Drink this mixture three times a day, between meals, for 3 to 4 days. Take no food 2 hours before or for 2 hours afterward. Drink at least eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day.
This mixture can be constipating for some people. Should you become constipated, take extra vitamin C and magnesium. Some people may also need to use a plain water enema, or the coffee enema.
Some people feel abdominal discomfort during the first day or two of the cleanse when the psyllium has expanded in the bowel. Many people pass particles of varying size and shape. Some report long casings that may be mucosal debris and dead cells from the intestinal lining.
Many people who have constipation do not exercise enough. Research tells us that our bowels will not move unless we move. Exercise helps keep abdominal muscles healthy and muscle tone optimal. Simple walking is very beneficial, but the following activities are particularly helpful to combat constipation:
climbing a ladder or stairs
rowing, with chest held high, and giving the trunk a strong backward movement
medicine ball bouncing, to give the trunk muscles vigorous action
chopping, digging, swinging, mowing
folk and square dancing
Fiber, sometimes called roughage or bulk, helps to relieve constipation. It absorbs water in the large intestine and makes stools larger, softer, and easier to pass. Food fiber is soluble and is best for your body. High-fiber foods include grains and bran, fresh fruits with skin on, dried fruits, raw vegetables, legumes, nuts, and seeds. Peeled, cooked, or pureed fruits and vegetables have less useful fiber than those eaten raw.
By increasing high-fiber foods in your diet, fiber supplementation is not usually necessary. If you need to take a fiber supplement, start with small amounts and increase your water intake. You may experience some cramping, diarrhea, or gas at first. Fiber supplements can lead to dehydration, and minerals will be lost with the water. They can also decrease the absorption of dietary protein.
Many people are constipated or have difficult bowel movements because they do not consume enough liquid. Liquids, particularly water, keep stools soft. When liquid intake is too low, stools become small and hard. Coffee, tea, and caffeinated soft drinks can deplete the body of water because caffeine acts a diuretic.
There is controversy over how much water you should drink ordinarily. Many physicians say six to eight glasses per day, but some homeopaths feel that this much water overworks the kidneys. Certainly you should always drink when you are thirsty, and the bulk of your fluid intake should be water. During detoxification procedures, it is important to drink extra water.
Commercial laxatives can make a constipation problem worse. They are physically addictive and their frequent use can lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Laxatives can weaken the GI muscles and decrease the effectiveness of peristalsis. Over a period of time, bowel movements become difficult without a laxative.
There are more natural options that will not harm your body. Ground psyllium seeds are a concentrated source of fiber, which has laxative properties. Psyllium is available at health food stores.
If you take vitamin C to bowel tolerance levels every day, you will not be constipated. Even if you do not take these amounts, extra doses of vitamin C help relieve constipation.
Extra magnesium also relieves constipation. Magnesium is the active portion of Epsom salts and Milk of Magnesia. However, these laxatives are harsh to your body. Simply increasing your magnesium supplementation should clear constipation.
Taken orally, charcoal is an excellent cleanser for the gastrointestinal tract. Charcoal removes the odor from intestinal gas, and it also helps indigestion, peptic ulcers, or other forms of gastrointestinal distress. It is generally tolerated well orally, and the only reported side effects have been bowel irritation in extremely sensitive individuals with bowel inflammatory problems.
Charcoal should not be taken continuously for years. It can be used intermittently for long periods of time, and regularly for several months. Some people are concerned that charcoal might adsorb nutrients, although there are studies that show it does not. It adsorbs mineral acids, alkalis, and salts poorly; for this reason, it does not adsorb nutrients. Food and bile interfere with charcoal’s effectiveness, yet its adsorption capacity is still rapid. Charcoal works better in an acid than an alkaline medium.
Charcoal can be taken orally in the following ways:
Slurry: Charcoal stirred into water forms a slurry. The usual oral dose of charcoal is 1 Tbsp. of powder stirred into a glass of water, taken mid-morning or mid-afternoon.
Tablets and capsules: Intestinal gas and bloating can be treated with four capsules or eight tablets of charcoal taken three to four times per day, between meals. This treatment also helps with malodorous stools and bad breath originating both from the mouth and gastrointestinal tract.
Oral charcoal can prevent toxins from building up in the blood when the liver is not functioning well. The respiratory tract medication, Theophylline, has a narrow therapeutic range and overdoses are a common occurrence. People taking this drug should keep charcoal on hand to treat these overdoses.
end of Part 2—————————————————————————————————————————————————-
For the kidney to be healthy, infections must be cleared and any stones dissolved. A kidney cleanse must remove all irritating chemicals, metabolic waste, and crystal deposits. It must also replace damaged cells with new healthy tissues.
Drink eight to ten 8-ounce glasses of bottled or tolerated water every day during the cleanse. Make water your only beverage. Juices, caffeinated drinks, and sodas do not substitute for water.
After the cleanse, continue to drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water daily. Water helps detoxify the kidneys, as well as diluting the urine, preventing concentrations of the minerals and salts that can form stones.
Diet has a major influence on kidney health. Avoid acid-forming foods such as caffeine containing foods; salty, sugary, and fried foods; and soft drinks, which adversely affect the filtering ability of the kidneys. Also avoid mucus-forming foods, including all dairy products, heavy grains, starches, and fats. This will relieve irritation and inflammation and inhibit sediment formation.
Do not consume kidney irritants such as alcohol and excessive protein. The release of insulin following sugar consumption increases the level of calcium in the blood, which can contribute to the formation of kidney stones. Rhubarb and raw spinach must also be avoided, as they encourage the formation of stones.
Consumption of citric acid also helps prevent the formation of kidney stones. Drink the juice of a fresh lemon in a glass of warm water every morning, both during and after a kidney cleanse. Lemons inhibit kidney stone formation because of their citric acid content. Lemonade should not be substituted for plain lemon and water, because it usually contains a high level of sugar.
The prevention of kidney stones is an essential factor in the health of the kidney. Zinc is an important inhibitor of crystallization. Take 50 to 80 mg of a zinc supplement and balance with 2 to 3 mg of copper. Use these amounts routinely if you are prone to kidney stones.
A raw kidney glandular, which is a concentrated form of animal kidney, strengthens the kidneys. It should be prepared from a young, organically raised, free-range animal that has not been given hormones.
The herbs ginkgo biloba and goldenseal in extract form increase circulation to the kidneys and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Apples are considered to be a healing herb for the kidney and serve as a purifier, cleanser, disinfectant, and toner.
The following herbal cleanse is recommended for cleansing and detoxifying; it also treats urinary tract infections.
Caution: People who have nephritis or who take diuretics frequently should not use this formula, since it acts as a diuretic. Avoid high-sodium foods while using this formula.
Combine equal amounts of the following herbs and put into capsules. Take 5 to 8 capsules per day:
Exercise daily. Sedentary people have a high level of calcium in their blood. Exercise forces the calcium into the bones, lessening the risk of kidney stones, as well as promoting the elimination of toxins through increased circulation and sweating.
OTHER CLEANSING MEASURES
Take saunas or hot baths to increase sweating, which causes the excretion of toxins and excess fluid through the skin, sparing the kidneys. Essential oils in the bath water will help relieve kidney stress. Use 8 to 10 drops of two of the following: cedar wood, chamomile, eucalyptus, geranium, lemon, juniper, or sandalwood.
Homeopathic remedies that support the kidney or a complex homeopathic remedy will assist a kidney cleanse.
If you have a chronic cough that brings up phlegm, a constant runny nose, bronchitis or wheezing, or severe sinusitis, a lung cleanse should be helpful for you. People who have problems with fluid retention may not be able to do this cleanse.
Drink 8 to 12 glasses of water, juices, herb teas, and broth daily. Avoid dairy and dairy products, which can cause congestion. Eat fresh fruits, high-chlorophyll vegetables, sea vegetables, and non-gluten grains such as millet or brown rice. These are alkalizing foods and should be eaten in a ratio of about 4 to 1 over acid-forming foods. Chlorophyll rich foods such as chlorella, spirulina, and barley green will enhance lung cleansing, in addition to increasing oxygenation and helping to clear respiratory infections. Pitted fruits such as apricots, peaches, and plums are “lung-friendly” foods because of their flavonoid content.
Antioxidants are particularly important for lung function. Be certain to include vitamins A, C, and E in your nutrients as well as selenium, cysteine, and CoQ10.
Take an anti-infective such as garlic, olive leaf extract, or colloidal silver if you have bronchitis or similar lung symptoms. Proteolytic enzymes taken between meals will reduce inflammation, and quercetin between meals has a powerful antihistamine effect.
Try one of the following teas to relieve congestion and inflammation.
1 part lance-leaf plantain
1 part lungwort
1 part mullein flowers
2 parts speedwell
Mix the herbs in the indicated proportions and steep 1 tsp. of the mixture in 1/2 cup boiling water. Sweeten with honey and sip 1 to 1 1/2 cups over the course of a day.
Mix hemp nettle, shave grass, witch grass in equal parts. Use 1 heaping tsp. of the mixture to 1/2 cup cold water. Bring to a boil for 1 minute, then steep for 1 minute and strain. Sweeten with a little honey, if desired. Sip 1 to 1 1/2 cups over the course of a day.
Be vigilant about your environment and avoid all forms of tobacco smoke. Try to avoid exposures to dust or dust mites, molds, pollens, terpenes, and chemicals.
Be particularly careful in your home and, if you are not already doing so, avoid cleaning compounds and toiletries that have a scent of any kind. Use an air cleaner and, if necessary, wear a charcoal filter mask at home and at work.
OTHER CLEANSING MEASURES
Breathing exercises are very helpful in lung detoxification, as is physical exercise. A brisk daily walk during which you breathe deeply will accelerate your cleanse.
A chest rub of essential oils or inhaling steam to which essential oils have been added will thin and stop excessive mucus production. Oregano, tea tree, and eucalyptus oils singly or in combination will help. For a chest rub, put 15 drops in 1 ounce of a base oil and rub on the chest. For steam inhalation, put 6 drops in 1 quart of hot water and breathe the fumes.
Homeopathic remedies that are supportive of the lungs are helpful in a cleanse.
end of part 3—————————————————————————————————————————————–
Proper diet can improve your skin and overall appearance. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables and eliminate sugar, fried foods, margarine, shortening, hydrogenated oils, and dairy products. Eat foods high in fiber to keep the colon clean, which will help keep the skin clean.
Eat zinc-rich foods such as egg yolks, fish, meat, liver, grains, beans, and pumpkin and sunflower seeds, as a low-zinc diet can cause skin flare-ups. Zinc has antibacterial properties and is also necessary to the oil producing glands of the skin.
Eliminate coffee and alcohol, as they affect circulation to the skin. Also avoid processed foods, which are high in sugar, salt, and fat. Saturated fats promote inflammation.
WATER AND TEAS
As with the other organ cleanses, it is important to drink 8 to 10 glasses of tolerated water to flush toxins through the kidneys. This helps to prevent toxins from having to exit via the skin as blemishes or rashes. Herbal teas also help the skin. Alternate between dandelion, goldenseal, myrrh, pau d’arco, and red clovers. Caution: Do not use goldenseal on a daily basis for more than a week and do not use during pregnancy.
Skin Support Tea
Elder leaves and flowers
Witch grass root
Mix the herbs in equal parts and steep 1 tsp. of the mixture in 1/2 cup boiling water. Sip 1/2 to 1 cup daily, unsweetened. Use daily over several months.
2 parts speedwell
1 part black elder leaves
1 part English walnut leaves
1 part pansy
Mix herbs in the indicated proportions. Steep 1 tsp. of the mixture in 1/2 cup boiling water. Sip 1 to 1 1/2 cups daily, unsweetened.
Antioxidants are essential for skin health. Be certain to take vitamins A, C, and E, as well as bioflavonoids. Vitamin E protects against ultraviolet light damage and bioflavonoids improve the skin’s blood supply. Essential fatty acids, such as evening primrose oil, help prevent dehydration and wrinkling. Protease, an enzyme, will help to heal some skin disorders.
OTHER CLEANSING MEASURES
Dry brushing is important for a skin cleanse. It removes the top layer of old skin, helping to remove mucus residues and uric acid crystals. Use a natural bristle or a soft surgical scrub brush. Begin with the soles of your feet, and using a rotary motion, brush every inch of your skin except the nipples. Follow the brushing with a cleansing shower or bath.
Massage therapy will help improve skin tone by increasing circulation. Essential oils help to detoxify, nourish, tone, soothe, and support skin function. Essential oils that assist in a skin cleanse include lavender, geranium, sandalwood, and neroli. Add 15 drops of one oil, or a combination, to 2 ounces of a base or fixed oil and rub on the skin.
Poor diet adversely affects the immune system and the lymphatic system. Sugar and alcohol inhibit white blood cell activity. Sugar consumption (the amount of sugar in a sweetened soft drink) will stop white blood cell activity within 30 minutes and normal activity will not return for four to five hours.
To strengthen immune response, eat foods that are high in essential fatty acids, such as salmon, fresh tuna, and sea vegetables. It is also important to eat adequate amounts of protein and fresh fruits and vegetables.
Supporting lymph nutrients include vitamins A, C, E, and B complex, beta-carotene, iron, zinc, and selenium. The enzyme protease is a lymph and immune booster.
Echinacea extract and astragalus extract are deep lymph-cleansing herbs. Echinacea also reduces lymphatic congestion and swelling. Red root is a powerful lymphatic cleanser and is synergistic with Echinacea. Ocotillo flushes lymph congestion.
Regular exercise is critical for lymph flow in the body. Rhythmic aerobic exercise, such as walking, dancing, or “step” exercise, is helpful. Begin each exercise session with deep breathing and stretching.
Set a specific time to exercise and choose an activity you enjoy. The exercise should be convenient for you and one you can do at almost any time.
Be sure to shower after your exercise session to wash off the toxins excreted in your sweat.
OTHER CLEANSING MEASURES
Massage therapy and manual lymph drainage are helpful in encouraging lymphatic circulation. Acupuncture and acupressure can also be useful.
Alternating hot and cold showers will stimulate lymph circulation, as will breathing exercises.
The essential oils of geranium, juniper, and black pepper will assist a lymph cleanse when rubbed on the skin. Use 15 drops of oil in 1 ounce of a base or carrier oil. Eight to ten drops of these essential oils are also supportive of the lymph system when added to bath water.
Complex homeopathic remedies are helpful in cleansing and supporting the lymphatic system.
Diet is important in cleansing the blood. Follow a juice diet for three days, unless you have a degenerative disease. A juice diet or fast is not recommended in these cases because the toxins released by a fast may be more than the body and blood can detoxify.
After the fast, eat only very pure foods, including as much organic food as possible, and avoid canned, frozen, and processed foods. Do not eat food that contains any additives, including colors, flavors, and preservatives. Avoid sugar, sodas, artificial sweeteners, and fried foods.
WATER AND TEAS
In addition to pure, tolerated water, drink bottled mineral water throughout the day to hydrate and alkalize the body. Mild herb teas, such as sarsaparilla and pau d’arco, can improve body chemistry and enhance blood cleansing, as can chlorophyll.
Nutrients will help with a blood cleanse, particularly the antioxidants, which clean the blood and strengthen white blood cells. Buffered vitamin C in small doses throughout the day will cause a rapid improvement. Take enzymes to help with digestion, particularly protein digestion. Enzymes break down organisms and incompletely digested protein in the blood, enabling them to be destroyed by the immune system. Probiotics are important for building blood and improving digestion.
OTHER CLEANSING MEASURES
Many herbs, including red clover, dandelion, burdock, yellow dock, Echinacea, and Oregon grape root, cleanse the blood.
Essential oils, such as rosemary, cypress, and vetiver assist in blood cleansing. Use 15 drops of each oil in 1 ounce of base or carrier oil and rub on the skin. Eight to ten drops of each of these oils may also be used in bath water.
Aerobic exercise increases the level of oxygen in the blood, which assists with blood cleansing.
Massage therapy will increase circulation, and detoxification baths also help cleanse the blood.
Some people improve with an enema at the beginning and end of their blood cleanses, which prevents new toxins from entering the bloodstream.
end of part 4 concludes the organ detox———————————————————————————————————
To complete your anti-pain arsenal, consider these herbs:
• Arnica (Arnica spp.), available in creams and tablets,relieves osteoarthritic pain in the knee and pain following carpal-tunnel release surgery. It contains helenin, an analgesic, as well as anti-inflammatory chemicals. Apply cream twice daily; use tablets according to package directions.
• Boswellia (Boswellia serrata) contains anti-inflammatory and analgesic boswellic acids that can soothe pain from sports injuries and also can help osteoarthritic knee pain. Take 150- to 400-mg capsules or tablets (standardized to contain 30 percent to 65 percent boswellic acids) three times daily for two to three months.
• Clove oil (Syzygium aromaticum) is a popular home remedy for a toothache. Apply a drop or two of this excellent anti-inflammatory directly to your aching tooth or tooth cavity.
• Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds are stocked with 16 analgesic and 27 antispasmodic chemicals. It makes a pleasant licorice-flavored tea and is especially good for menstrual cramps. But avoid the herb while pregnant or nursing because of its estrogenic effects.
• Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is a remedy many people swear by for headaches, including migraines. Feverfew can reduce both the frequency and severity of headaches when taken regularly. It is available in 60-mg capsules of fresh, powdered leaf (1 to 6 capsules daily), or 25-mg capsules of freeze-dried leaf (2 capsules daily). You can also make tea—steep 2 to 8 fresh leaves in boiling water, but do not boil them, since boiling breaks down the active parthenolides.
• Gingerroot (Zingiber officinale) has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties that can alleviate digestive cramps and mild pain from fibromyalgia. You can take 1 to 4 grams powdered ginger daily, divided into two to four doses. Or make tea from 1 teaspoon chopped fresh root simmered in a cup of water for about 10 minutes.
• Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is great for stiff muscles—it has nine muscle-relaxing compounds, more than just about any other plant.
• Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is recommended by the German Commission E for sore throat. Not surprising, considering its nine anesthetic, 10 analgesic and 20 anti-inflammatory compounds. To make tea, simmer about 2 teaspoons of dried root in a cup of water for 15 minutes; strain. Do not take licorice if you have high blood pressure, heart conditions, diabetes, kidney disease or glaucoma.
• Oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are herbs you should be sprinkling liberally onto your food, as they are replete with analgesic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory compounds. (Oregano alone has 32 anti-inflammatories!) Mix and match these garden herbs into a pain-relieving tea: Pour a cup of boiling water over a teaspoon of dried herbs, steep 5 to 10 minutes and strain
thanks to http://www.herbcompanion.com
120 MEDICINAL HERBS
Achillea millefolium Yarrow Bitter, astringent plant used internally for feverish colds & flu, indigestion, hypertension, menstrual problems, etc; externally, stops bleeding. Rhizomatous hardy perennial, 1-3′. Fields, roadsides – for any good, well-drained soil, sun. Propagate by division of rhizomes, or seed (needs light).
Acorus calamus Calamus, Sweet flag Aromatic, bitter, stimulant root used for indigestion, coughs & colds, endurance. Important Ayurvedic restorative for brain, nervous system. Hardy, colony-forming perennial herb; grassy-leaved, 1-3′. Wet soil, marsh or shallow water, full sun. Propagate by division of rhizomes.
Agrimonia eupatoria Agrimony Cooling, astringent plant used for digestive tonic, diarrhea, urinary infections, phlegm, to clear toxins; externally for wounds, skin inflammations, etc. Hardy perennial herb, 2′. Attractive compound leaves, yellow flowers. Well-drained to dry soil, sun. Propagate by sed sown in spring, or division.
Agropyron repens Quackgrass Rhizomes are a soothing, diuretic, urinary antiseptic, used for cystitus, prostatitis, gout, rheumatism, etc. Lowers blood cholesterol. Very invasive perennial grass, 2′. difficult to eradicate. Tolerates most soils, prefers sun. Propagate by division of rhizomes.
Albizia julibrissin Mimosa tree, He huan Bark and flowers are used for insomnia & irritability, flowers for poor memory, bark (internally & externally) for injuries, skin conditions, lung abcesses. Small, ornamental tree to 40′. Tolerant, prefers warmth, moisture and sun. Propagate by seed sown in spring (nick or hot water soak before sowing).
Allium fistulosum Welsh onion, Cong bai/xu Antibiotic, anti-inflammatory plant used in early stages of common cold (lowers fever by causing perspiration), also expectorant. Perennial food (scallions) Familiar green onion / scallion, 12″. Propagate by seed sown in flat in spring, transplant to rich, moist soil, full sun. Clumps may be divided.
Allium sativum Garlic Warming, antibiotic bulb; fights infection (colds, flu, etc), lowers blood pressure, cholesterol, blood sugar, heart attack risk. Externally for acne, fungus, etc Familiar culinary bulb, 12″. . Rich, light, well-drained soil, full sun. Propagate by individual cloves direct planted in autumn.
Allium tuberosum Chinese/garlic chive, jiu zi Seeds are a warming yang tonic used for impotence, incontinence, lower back soreness, etc. due to kidney deficiency. Leaves used as poultice, and edible Clump forming perennial, 12-18″, ornamental. Prefers rich soil, full sun. Propagate by seed sown in spring (may self-sow), or divide clumps.
Althaea officinalis Marshmallow Sothing, mucilaginous plant used for bronchitis, urinary tract infections, digestive problems; externally for injuries, skin inflammations, etc. All parts edible. Erect, hardy perennial herb, 3-5′. Prefers moist to wet soil and sun. Propagate by seed or division of clumps, autumn or early spring.
Arctium lappa Burdock, Niu bang (zi) Root alterative and blood-cleansing, for skin conditions due to internal toxicity (eczema, psoriasis). Seeds dispel wind heat (colds, fever, sore throat). Stout biennial to 6′ (2nd yr). Prefers deep, rich, moist soil, sun or part shade. Direct sow in spring, spacing 6″ (for roots) to 2′ (for seeds). Edible plant.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Bearberry, kinikinik Astringent, antiseptic and diuretic herb used especially for urinary tract infections, cystitis, vaginitis, kidney and gallstones. Also in herbal smoking mixtures. Low (6″), creeping, evergren groundcover. Peaty or sandy, acid soil, sun to part shade. Propagate by division / layering; seed difficult, slow (1 year+)
Arnica montana Arnica Flowers stimulate circulation and reduce inflammation – used externally (only!) for bruises, sprains, dislocations, muscle pain, etc. Homeopathic Hardy perennial herb, 6″ (flowering to 18″), spreading by rhizomes. Moist, acid, sandy-peaty soil, full sun. Propagate by division or spring sown seed.
Artemisia vulgaris Mugwort, Ai ye, moxa Aromatic, bitter herb used for poor appetite & digestion, nerve tonic, female reproductive system (regulate menstruation, etc.), expels parasites. Moxa Rhizomatous hardy perennial herb, 2-3′; may be dangerously invasive. Most soils, sun – part shade. Propagate by division or spring sown seed.
Asclepias tuberosa Pleurisy root, Butterfly wd Root has diaphoretic, anti-spasmodic & expectorant properties; used for lung conditions (bronchitis, asthma, etc.), fevers. Poulticed on sores, bruises, etc. Hardy perennial herb, 2′, showy. Average to dry soil, sun. Propagate by seed sown autumn or early spring (cold aids germination), space 12″.
Astragalus membranaceus Milkvetch, Huang qi Important tonic root, immune system (“defense energy”) stimulant; used for fatigue, poor appetite, spontaneous sweating due to deficiency, recuperation. Hardy perennial herb, multistalked,3′. Prefers light/well-drained, slightly alkaline soil, full sun. Propagate by seed sown direct or in flat, in spring, space 12″
Avena sativa Oats Nutritive, restorative, tonic herb/grain used especially for nervous system: depression, anxiety, etc. Also used externally for skin condittions and in cosmetics. Annual grain crop, 2-4′. Good soil and sun. Direct sow in autumn (mild winter areas) or early spring, harvest in green (milky) seed stage.
Baptisia tinctoria Wild indigo The bitter, antibacterial root stimulates immune system, used especially for head and throat infections. Also used externally formulcers, boils, wounds, etc. Hardy perennial herb, 3′, multistalked, attractive. Prefers average to dry, acid soil and sun. Sow seed in spring, direct or in pots (resents root disturbance)
Berberis vulgaris Barberry Bitter, aromatic plant used especially for liver and gallbladder (hepatitis, gallstones, etc.), also diarrhea, hypertension. Fruit is edible and medicinal. Hardy deciduous shrub to 10′, spiny. Prefers light shade and calcareous soil. Propagate by seed, division of suckers, or autumn cuttings.
Calendula officinalis Pot marigold Petals have astringent, antiseptic & anti-inflammatory properties, used internally for liver & gynecological problems, externally for variety of skin problems Hardy annual, 18″, showy orange/yellow flowers. For any good soil, prefers full sun. Direct sow early to late spring, thin to 6″. Often self-sows.
Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd’s purse Astringent, diuretic, antiseptic herb used especially to stop bleeding – internal (menstrual, post-partum) and external; also for cystitis. Often self-sows. Winter annual , flowering to 18″ from 6″ rosette. Appreciates good soil, sun to part shade. Best sown direct, autumn to early spring. Self-sows.
Caulophyllum thalictroides Blue cohosh Bitter root used especially to stimulate uterus and facilitate birth process, also used for menstrual problems, endometriosis, rheumatism, arthritis, etc Hardy perennial herb of rich woods, 2-3′ Moist humus-rich soil, deciduous shade. Seeds require.cold, warm, cold – emerge second spring.
Centella asiatica Gotu kola Rejuvinative, tonic plant with diurectic, detoxifying and immune stimulating properties. Promotes healing, retards senility. Aids spiritual practices. Tender, perennial herb, 6″. Moist to wet soil , sun or light shade . Prpogates by runners. Frost-susceptible, but easily overwintered indoors – keep wet
Chamaelirium luteum False unicorn root Tonic root mainly for female reproductive system, stimulating uterus & ovaries. For menstrual & menopausal problems, infertility, miscarrriage. Hardy perennial herb , to 18″ from 6″ rosette. Attractive wildflower of rich woods. Propagate by seed, autumn-early spring – stays small 1st year.
Chamaemelum nobile Chamomile, Roman Aromatic bitter flower used mainly for digestive (poor appetite, dyspepsia, etc.) and sedative (insomnia, anxiety) properties; soothing children, etc. Mat-forming , hardy perennial herb, 2″(6″ in bloom). Prefers well-drained soil and sun. Propagate by division or seed, sown autumn-early spring.
Chelidonium majus Celandine poppy Anti-inflammatory, cleansing, diuretic plant used internally for liver and gall bladder, etc; externally for variety of skin & eye problems, warts, tumors. Hardy perennial herb, 18″, attractive. Prefers rich, moist soil, light shade. Propagate by seed sown in flat in spring, space transplants 12″ , self sows
Chelone glabra Turtlehead Bitter, tonic plant especially for liver and digestive system; used for constipation, chronic liver disease, anorexia, indigestion, jaundice, etc. Upright hardy perennial herb to 3′, ornamental. Moist to wet soil, part shade. Propagate by seed sown in spring (requires light for germination).
Chenopodium ambrosioides Wormseed, Epazote Strongly aromatic herb with insecticidal properties, primarily used against intestinal worms. Cooked with beans to flavor and aid digestion . (epazote) Branching annual/perennial herb to 3′ +. Prefers good soil and sun. Easy from seed in spring, may self-sow excessively if allowed to.
Cimicifuga racemosa Black cohosh Bitter, tonic root withestrogenic, sedative, anti-inflammatory properties. Used for menstrual and menopausal problems, anxiety attacks, bronchitis. Hardy perennial herb/wildflower of rich woods, to 6′ (in bloom). Propagate by seed sown late summer (requires warm-cold-warm to germinate)
Codonopsis pilosula Dang shen Sweet, nutritious, tonic root, increasingly substituted for the more demanding ginseng, for low energy , debility, poor appetite & digestion, etc. Hardy herbaceous, perennial, twining vine, to 6′. Prefers rich, well-drained soil, part shade. Propagate by seed sown early spring, direct or in flat.
Dioscorea batatas Cinnamon vine, Chin. yam Nutritious , tonic tuber, acting primarily on spleen, kidneys and lungs. Used for low energy, poor digestion, asthma & cough, frequent urination . Strong, twining, herbaceous perennial vine, 20′ . Any goood soil, sun – part shade. Easily propagated by aerial tubers, may become weedy
Dioscorea villosa Wild yam Anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic root used for menstrual & labor pain, colitis, gastritis, etc. Also for galll bladder complaints, asthma, arthritis. Twining herbaceous perennial vine, 15′. Woodland herb, prefers good soil, part shade. Sow seed in winter – early spring (cold aids germination).
Echinacea purpurea Purple coneflower Alterative, antibiotic and antiviral plant used especially for immune system stimulation (for colds and flu, also most infections and inflammations). Showy, hardy perennial herb, 2-3′. Prefers rich moist soil and sun-light shade. Propagate by division or seed sown in early spring; space plants 12″
Eclipta prostrata/alba False daisy Tonic herb for liver & kidney yin deficeiency (premature aging: tinnitus, vision problems); also used to control internal bleeding. Benefits hair. Lax, tender, annual herb to 12″, spreading. Moist to wet soil, sun. Sow in flat in spring, transplant when soil warms, spacing 12″ apart
Eschscholzia californica California poppy Sedative, anti-spasmodic plant with pain relieving properties. For nervous tension, anxiety and insomnia. Helps calm overexcited, sleepless children. Ornamental annual herb to 18″. Prefers good garden soil and full sun. Best sown direct – dislikes transplanting – in early spring, spacing 12″
Eupatorium perfoliatum Boneset Bitter plant used for colds, influenza, bronchitis, etc. Promotes sweating to lower fever, stimulates immune system, expectorant and antispasmodic. Upright hardy perennial herb to 4′, attractive. Rich moist soil and sun. Propagate by division or seed – sow on surface of flat in spring, keep moist.
Eupatorium purpureum Joe Pye weed, Gravel root Cleansing, diuretic, root used for kidney & urinary problems (stones, cystitus, urethritis), menstrual and labor pain, rheumatism. Immune properties. Giant, showy, hardy root perennial herb to 10′ . ‘Queen of the meadow’, prefers rich, moist soil and sun . Sow in spring, space plants 2′ apart.
Filipendula ulmaria Meadowsweet Aromatic astringent plant with antacid and pain relieving properties. Used for hyperacidity & heartburn, gastritis, ulcers; also rheumatism and flu. Attractive hardy perennial herb 2-4′, bushy . Prefers damp rich soil and light shade. Divide, or sow in flat in spring, do not cover , keep moist.
Foeniculum vulgare Fennel Aromatic plant with antispasmodic properties. Seeds promotes digestion and lactation, root used for urinary problems. Relieves colic and griping cramps. Hardy perennial plant, 4′, feathery leaves & yellow flowers. Tolerates most soils, sun. Sow direct in spring, thinning to 2′ spacing.
Geranium maculatum Wild geraniium Astringent, antiseptic plant used for diarrhea (children, elderly), ulcers, colitis, internal bleeding, excessive menstruation. Externally for hemorrhoids. Attractive hardy perennial herb/wildflower, 1-2′. Woods edges: prefers rich, moist soil, part shade, Best sown outdoors in autumn, or divide clumps
Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo Bittersweet, astringent plant, leaves relax blood vessels and promote circulation to brain and extremities; seeds used for asthma, coughs, incontinence. Hardy deciduous tree, 100′+. Adaptable, prefers moist soil & sun. Sow recent seed in spring, grow in container for 1 or 2 years before setting out.
Humulus lupulus Hops Bitter flowers with sedative properties used for insomnia, anxiety, irritability (but not depression ), nervous indigestion, irritable bowel; contains estrogen. High climbing, twining, hardy herbaceous perennial vine. Prefers rich moist soil, sun-part shade. Propagate by division from female plants spring.
Hydrangea arborescens Wild hydrangea Antiseptic, soothing, diurectic root used for kidney & bladder stones, cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis, etc. Hardy perennial shrub, 4-6′, attractive. Rich woods native: prefers humus soil and some shade. Sow in spring, pressing seed into surface, keep moist
Hydrastis canadensis Goldenseal Bittter, alterative root with antibiotic, anti-inflammatory properties. Used internally & externally for infection; also digesstive & menstrual problems. Colonial, hardy perennial herb, 12″. Rich woods native ;humus-rich soil, part-full shade. Seed needs 2 winters, never drying out; or divide from colony
Hypericum perforatum St. John’s wort Sedative, anti-inflammatory herb, for anxiety,nervous tension, PMS. Oil used esternally for wounds (esp. with nerve damage), sores, burns, earache. Hardy perennial herb, 2′, spreading by runners. Well-drained to dry, sandy soil; sun. Divide, or sow on surface (add sand to starting mix) keep moist.
Hyssopus officinalis Hyssop Bitter, tonic plant primarily used as a sedative & expectorant for colds, flu, bronchitis. Promotes sweating to lower fever, antiviral, aids digestive system. Hardy perennial subshrub to 2′, attractive. Well-drained to dry, neutral to alkaline soil, full sun. Propagate by summer cuttings or spring sown seed.
Inula helenium Elecampane Bitter tonic root with alterative, expectorant, antibacterial, immune stimulating and anti-inflammatory properties. Primarily for cough, lung problems. Giant hardy perennial herb, to 10′, ornamental. Rich, moist, well -drained soil and sun-light shade. Sow in flat in spring, covering shallowly. Space 2′.
Isatis tinctoria Woad Bitter, cooling plant used to ‘clear heat and relieve toxicity.’ Useful for any feverish disease, especially epidemic, and sore swollen throat as in mumps. Hardy biennial plant, 2-4′ (2nd year), attractive in bloom. Rich, well-drained soil in sun. Sow direct, autumn or spring, thin to 12-18″ apart.
Juniperus communis Juniper Bitter, aromatic fruit with antiseptic and diuretic action. Used for cystitus, urethritis, kidney inflammation; also to stimulate digestion and appetite. Hardy evergreen shrub or small tree. Tolerates most soils, sun or light shade. Propagate by autumn cuttings, seed germination difficult.
Lactuca serriola, virosa Wild lettuce Bitter plant with sedative, expectorant and pain relieving properties. Used for insomnia and anxiety, also coughs and bronchitis. Upright hardy biennial herb to 5′. Tolerates dry soil, sun to light shade. Sow direct in autumn or spring, thin to 12″ spacing.
Lavendula angustofolia Lavender Fragrant, aromatic, tonic flowers with antispasmodic, antidepressant, circulatory stimulant properties. Used for anxiety, tension headaches, indigestion. Hardy perennial subshrub to 2′. Well-drained, neutral soil, full sun. Propagate by cuttings, or seed sown in flats, early spring (cold aids germination)
Leonurus cardiaca Motherwort, American Bitter plant with sedative & antispasmodic properties. Uterine stimulant & relaxant, cardiac & nerve tonic . For heart palpitation, menstrual problems. Upright, hardy perennial herb to 4′. Good soil, sun to light shade. Propagate by division or seed (may be sown direct); self-sows
Leonurus sibiricus Motherwort, Siberian Bitter, diurectic plant which regulates mensruation, improves blood circulation, stimulates uterus andfights infection. Seeds used for sore, red eyes. Upright, hardy biennial herb to 6′ (2nd year). Tolerant, prefers rich, moist soil, sun-part shade. Easily propagated by seed sown in spring, self-sows.
Lycopus Virginicus Bugleweed Bitter plant, mild sedative, astringent. Used for excessive menstruation, rapid pulse, chronic lung problemsand, especially, overactive thyroid. Hardy perennial herb, 1-2′. Prefers good, moist to wet soil, part shade. Sow in flat in spring, transplant seedlings spacing 6-12″ apart.
Marrubium vulgare Horehound Bitter, aromatic plant, with expectorant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic properties. Used primarily for lungs: coughs, bronchitis, etc. Hardy perennial plant, 1-2′, bushy. Well-drained to dry soil, full sun. Propagate by division, or by seed sown direct or in flat in spring. Spacing 12″
Matricaria recutita Chamomile, German Aromatic bitter flower, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic. For stomach disorders (promotes gastric secretions), common cold, childhood complaints. Upright, branching annual herb to 2′. Good garden soil, full sun. May be sown direct, autumn or spring, or sow in flat & transplant, spacing 3-6″.
Melissa officinalis Lemon balm Aromatic plant with sedative, cooling and antibiotic properties. Used for nervous disorders & associated indigestion (adults & children), hyperthyroid. Hardy perennial herb, 1-2′. Prefers rich, moist soil, sun-light shade. Propagate by division, or seed sown autumn-early spring (cold aids germination).
Mentha x piperita Peppermint Aromatic plant with stimulant, antispasmodic and antiseptic properties. Used for digestive disorders, colds & flu, nervous headaches; also externally. Stoloniferous hardy perennial herb, 2-3′. Rich, damp soil, sun-part shade. Propagate from stolons, autumn or spring; or by seed in spring.
Mitchella repens Partridge berry Bitter, astringent plant diuretic. Used for menstrual problems and birth: strengthens contractions & soothes pain; also nerves & irritability. Creeping, evergreen, hardy perennial groundcover, 6″. Moist, acid, humus soil and shade. Propagate by division, or seed sown autumn-early spring.
Morus alba Mulberry, white Leaves used for feverish colds; fruit tonifies liver, kidneys & vital essence; root bark for asthma, ‘hot’ coughs; twigs relieve pain, anti-rheumatic. Hardy deciduous tree to 50′. Tolerates most soils and situations, sun-light shade. Propagate by seed (requires cold period) or dormant cuttings.
Nepeta cataria Catnip Bitter astringent plant with sedative properties. Promotes sweating – lowers fever (colds & flu). Also infant colic & diarrhea, irritability. Hardy perennial plant, 2-3′,bushy. Tolerant, prefers sun to light shade & well-drained to dry soil. Propagate by seed (easy, self-sows), or division.
Ocimum basilicum Basil Warming, aromatic, restorative plant. Lowers fever (colds, flu ), relaxes spasms, improves digestion. For gastrointestinal complaints, headache. Tender annual , 2′. Good garden soil (moist, well drained), full sun. Easily propagated from seed sown in warm soil – direct or transplant.
Ophiopogon japonicus Lily turf Sweet, soothing tonic tuber with sedative properties. Controls cough, lubricates bronchial & digestive tracts, treats irritability &insomnia. Hardy evergreen perennial with grass-like leaves, used as ground cover. Good soil, sun-pt. shade Prop. by division or seed (cold aids germination).
Origanum vulgare Oregano Pungent, aromatic, warming plant – antispasmodic, antiseptic. For colds & flu, stomach upset, cough. Stimulates uterus: for painful menstruation. Hardy perennial herb, 2′. Prefers well-drained, neutral soil and full sun. Propagate by division of clumps, cuttings or seed sown in warm soil.
Paeonia lactiflora Peony Bitter, cooling, tonic root, relaxes muscle spasms, relieves pain, builds blood. Used for a variety of female reproductive disorders. Hardy perennial herb, 3′, shrubbby, ornamental. Rich moist soil, full sun-part shade. Propagate by division of crowns (autumn) or seed (slow).
Panax quinquefolius Ginseng, American Bittersweet, cooling, tonic root which counteracts weakness & fatigue, aids recovery, improves response to stress. Used against fever & for lungs. Hardy perennial herb, 12″. Rich deciduous wooods (requires shade). Propagate by seed – must never dry out, germinates second spring.
Papaver somniferum Poppy Bitter, narcotic, sedative plant, which relieves pain and relaxes spasms, controls coughing and diarrhea. Upright winter annual, 2-4′, ornamental. Good garden soil, full sun. Direct sow in autumn (in mild winter areas) or early spring. Self-sows.
Passiflora incarnata Passion flower, Maypop Bitter, cooling plant with sedative pain-relieving antispasmodic properties. Used for anxiety, nervous & premenstrual tension, insomnia, etc. Hardy perennial woody vine to 30′, suckering , ornamental. Prefers sandy soil, sun. Propagate by division, cuttings or seed (heat improves germination)
Perilla frutescens Perilla, shiso, zi su Both leaves & fruit (seeds) are used to regulate vital energy. Leaves for colds with chill, headache, mastitis; Fruit for cough, asthma, constipation. Tender upright annual, 2-3′. Tolerant, prefers moist rich soil, sun-light shade. Direct sow in warm soil; will self-sow.
Petroselinum crispum Parsley Bitter, aromatic plant which is diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, emmmenagogue. For cystitis, prostratitis, indigestion, menstrual problems Hardy biennial, 1-2′. Prefers rich, moist, well-drained soil and sun. Sow in spring, direct or in flat; slow to germinate.
Phytolacca americana Pokeweed Bitter, pungent plant , alterative & anti-inflammatory, stimulates immune & lymph systems, clears toxins. For swollen glands, rheumatism, arthritis. Stout perennial herb to 10′ attractive. Rich soil, sun or light shade. Propagate by seed sown in spring; self-sows and potentially weedy.
Pimpinella anisum Anise Sweet, warming plant with stimulant & expectorant properties. Improves digestion, promotes lactation. For coughs, colds, colic, flatulence, etc. Slender annual, 2′. Prefers well-drained to sandy, neutral to alkaline soil and sun. Needs heat to ripen seeds. Direct sow in warm soil.
Plantago major Plantain Astringent, diuretic herb,antibacterial, expectorant, promotes healing. Internally for bronchitis, cystitis, diarrhea. Externally for wounds, stings, etc. Hardy perennial herb, 12″. For any good soil, sun or light shade. Propagate by seed sown in spring, or division. Self-sows, may become weedy.
Platycodon grandiflorus Balloon flower Bitter, pungent, tonic root/food with expectorant action. Used primarily for coughs, bronchitis, lung abcess, throat infections, etc. Upright, multistalked perennial plant,2-3′, ornamental. Rich, well-drained to sandy soil,sun. Propagate by seed – cold period aids germination.
Polygonum multiflorum Fo ti Bittersweet, tonic root, rejuvenates liver & reproductive systems, supplements blood & vital energy. Menstrual & menopausal complaints, aging. Rampant perennial vine, 20′+. Rich, moist, well-drained to sandy soil, sun. Propagate by cuttings or division. Invasive when established.
Portulaca oleracea Purslane Sour, cooling plant/food, diuretic, antibacterial, clears toxins. Rich source of vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants, omega3 fatty acids: to boost immunity. Spreading annual, 6-12″. Succeeds in any good soil and full sun. Sow direct when soil is warm; self-sows and may become weedy.
Primula veris Cowslip primrose Sedative, expectorant herb, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory. Used for bronchitis, insomnia, headache; soothes restless children. Hardy perennial herb, 12″. Spring wildflower preferring rich, damp, neutral-alkaline soil, part shade, Propagate by seed (cold aids germination), division.
Prunella vulgaris Self-heal, healall Astringent, diuretic herb which lowers fever & blood pressure, anti-bacterial. For hemorrhage, excess menstruation. Also used externally. Hardy perennial herb, 1-2′. Moist, well-drained soil, sun to part shade. Propagate by seed sown in early spring, or division of clumps.
Ptelea trifoliata Hop tree, wafer ash Bitter, pungent, tonic bark, which lowers fever, improves digestion and expels parasites (worms). Used for fevers, digestive problems. Hardy small tree, 10-20′, fragrant in bloom. Moist, well-drained soil, sun to part shade. Propagate by seed (cold period aids germination).
Pueraria lobata Kudzu Sweet, cooling tonic root, increases perspiration, relieves pain, soothes digestion. For colds, flu, fever, indigestion, neck and shoulder tension. Hardy, woody vine, 50′+, rampant and invasive. Prefers warm, rich, sandy soil and sun. Propagate by division, cuttings or seed (scarify or hot-water soak).
Raphanus sativus Radish Pungent seed which improves digestion, also expectorant & antibiotic. Primarily used for indigestion, abdominal bloating, diarrhea, ‘food stagnation’. Hardy annual, 1-3′. Succeeds in any good garden soil, likes full sun. Propagate by seed direct sown in cool season.
Rosa rugosa Japanese rose Aromatic, tonic fruit. Fruits are a source of vit. C & flavonoids. Flowers for poor appetite and digestion, excessive menstration. Hardy, suckering shrub to 6′, ornamental. Rich soil (tolerates sandy, seaside), sun or light shade. Propagate by division or seed sown in autumn.
Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary Aromatic herb with restorative, antispasmodic and pain relieving properties. For depression, migraine, poor circulation, nervous indigestion, memory. Tender evergreen shrub, 3′. Well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil, full sun. Propagate by cuttings, or seed (sow in flat in warm soil).
Rubus idaeus Rasberry Astringent leaf used primarily to tone the uterus during pregnancy in preparation for birth. Also used for diarrhea and externally: eyewash & gargle Hardy, spreading shrub, 6+, invasive. For any good soil, sun or light shade. Propagate by division of suckers or seed, sown in spring.
Rumex crispus Yellow/curled dock Bitter, cooling, astringent root which stimulates liver & gall bladder, clears toxins. Used for liver and chronic skin disorders, anemia. Hardy, perennial herb, flowering to 3′ form 12″ rosette. Tolerant, prefers good soil and sun. Propagate by seed direct sown in spring, germination erratic.
Salix alba, nigra, etc Willow Bitter, astringent, cooling bark which relieves pain and lowers fever, anti-inflammatory. For rheumatism, arthritis, headache, feverish illnesses. Hardy deciduous trees preferring moist to wet soil (streamsides), and full sun. Propagate by cuttings struck in wet soil, summer or winter.
Salvia officinalis Sage Astringent herb: antiseptic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory. Suppresses perspiration and lactation. Indigestion, depression, anxiety, menopause. Hardy perennial shrub, 2′. Prefers well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil, full sun. Propagate by cuttings or seed sown in spring (cold aids germination).
Sambucus nigra Elderberry Leaves, bark, flowers &fruit used. Treat colds & flu, fever, constipation, rheumatism, arthritis. Externally for injuries & inflammation, mouth, eyes. Hardy, suckering shrub/small tree to 10′. Rich, moist soil, sun to part shade. Propagate by division or seed (spring sown in compost-rich soil).
Sanguisorba officinalis Burnet Bitter, cooling, astringent herb: controls bleeding, promotes healing, anti-inflammatory , antibiotic. Diarrhea, hemorrhage. Externally; burns, sores. Hardy, perennial herb, 2′, attractive. Prefers rich, moist neutral soil, sun to part shade. Propagate by seed sown in early spring, or division.
Satureja hortensis Savory, summer Warming, astringent herb which is natiseptic and expectorant, improves digestion, stimulates uterus. For indigestion, nausea, menstrual disorders. Annual, 1-2′. Tolerant, prefers well-drained to dry, neutral to alkaline soil and full sun. Direct sow when soil has warmed.
Schisandra chinensis Schisandra Sweet-sour, astringent, warming fruit, tonic to kidney, heart, nervous & immune systems. Used for cough, asthma, urinary & reproductive disorders. Hardy, high-climbing, woody vine, dioecious. Prefers moist rich soil, part shade. Propagate by seed (cold aids germination), cuttings or division.
Scrophularia nodosa Figwort Altertive, diuretic root, relieves pain, stimulates liver, heart & circulation. Internally & externally for chronic skin diseases, mastitis, swollen lymph. Hardy perennial herb to 3′, bushy. Good, moist to wet soil, light shade. Propagate by seed sown in spring, or division.
Scutellaria lateriflora Mad dog skullcap Bitter, tonic herb with sedative, antispasmodic prooperities, lowers fever. Used for nervous complaints, insomnia, irritability, drug withdrawal. Hardy perennial herb, 1-2′, spreading by rhizomes. Prefers rich, damp-wet soil, light shade. Propagate by seed sown in spring, or division.
Senecio aureus Liferoot, golden ragwort Bitter, astringent, diuretic plant; stimulates uterus, controls bleeding. Used for failure to menstruate, menopausal complaints, prolonged labor, etc. Hardy perennial herb, 2-3′. Prefers moist soil, sun to part shade. Propagate by seed sown autumn to early spring.
Silybum marianum Milk thistle Bitter, tonic, diuretic seed which regenerates liver and aids digestion. Used for liver & gallbladder (cirrhosis, hepatitis), appetite stimulant. Hardy annual or biennial (winter annual) to 5′, ornamental, very prickly. Rich, well-drained soil, sun. Direct sow, autumn or early spring.
Stellaria media Chickweed Soothing, cooling plant which promotes healing and relieves itching. Internally for rheumatism, arthritis; externally for itching skin conditions. Winter annual, 6-12″, spreading. Prefers rich, moist, cool soil, sun to part shade. Direct sow, autumn or early spring; self-sows, may become weedy.
Symphytum officinale Comfrey Mucilaginous, cooling plant: expectorant, astringent, anti-inflammatory, soothing & healing. Used externaly for fractures, skin problems, etc. Hardy perennial herb, 3′, multi-stalked. Rich, moist soil, sun to light shade. Propagate by division or root cuttings. Difficult to remove once established.
Tanacetum parthenium Feverfew Bitter, cooling, tonic herb which relieves pain and lowers fever, anti-spasmodic. Used for headaches (esp. migraine), rheumatism & arthritis, menstrual. Hardy, short-lived perennial herb, 2′. Well-drained to dry soil, sun to part shade. Propagate by seed sown (on surface) in spring, or division. Self-sows.
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion Bittersweet, cooling plant, diuretic & laxative, stimulates liver & improves digestion. For gall bladder & urinary disorders, chronic skin problems. Hardy perennial herb, 12″. Tolerant, prefers rich, well-drained soil, full sun. Sow direct or in flat, in spring. Self-sowing and frequently weedy.
Thymus vulgaris Thyme Aromatic, warming herb; astringent, expectorant, antiseptic & antifungal. For bronchitis & asthma, indigestion & diarrhea; also used externally. Hardy perennial, 6″, attractive groundcover. Prefers well-drained, neutral-alkaline soil, full sun. Propagate by division or sow in flat in spring.
Trifolium pratense Red clover Sweet, cooling flowers are alterative, expectorant, antispasmodic. Internally for skin complaints (psoriasis, eczema), cancer, cough. Also used externally. Hardy perennial herb 20 2′. Tolerant, prefers fertile, well-drained soil, full sun. Direct sow, early spring to autumn. Soil builder (fixes nitrogen)
Tussilago farfara Coltsfoot Soothing, bittersweet herb is expectorant, antispasmodic & anti-inflammatory. Primarily for cough and lung conditions; also in herbal smoking mixtures. Stoloniferous, hardy perennial herb to 12″. Prefers rich, moist to wet soil and sun. Propagate by fresh seed sown on surface in spring, or division.
Urtica dioica Nettles Astringent plant is tonic, nutritive, diuretic. Controls bleeding (uterine, menstrual), also for skin complaints (eczema), arthritis, anemia, etc. Hardy perennial herb, 4′+, spreading by roots. Prefers rich (humus, nitrogen), moist soil, sun to part shade. Propagate by division or seed (in flat, spring)
Valeriana officinalis Valerian Bittersweet root is sedative, anispasmodic, aids digestion and relieves pain. For insomnia, anxiety, nervous disorders including nervous indigestion, etc. Hardy perennial herb, 4′+, attractive, fragrant. Prefers rich moist soil, sun or light shade. Propagate by seed sown in flat in spring, or division
Verbascum thapsus Mullein Bitter, mucilaginous plant is expectorant, promotes healing. Primarily for cough & lung problems; also externally (sores, earache) and in smoking mixtures Stout, upright, hardy biennial to 8′, ornamental. Tolerant, prefers fertile, well-drained soil and sun. Propagate by seed sown in spring – will self-sow
Verbena hastata Blue vervain Bitter plant with alterative properties used for liver and respiratory disorders, menstrual complaints, indigestion, colds & flu, etc. Hardy annual or perennial herb, 2-4′, ornamental purple blooms. For average soil, sun or part shade. Sow seed in early spring (cold aids germination).
Verbena officinalis Vervain Bitter, cooling plant, astringent diuretic, anti-inflammatory, calming, promotes lactation. Used for nervous & menstrual complaints. Magical associations Hardy annual / short-lived perennial herb, 2-3′. Well-drained soil and sun. Propagate by seed (sown in spring), division, or stem cuttings
Veronicastrum virginicum Culver’s root Bitter root with tonic, laxative and antispasmodic actions. Used primarily for liver and gall bladder complaints and to aid digestion. Rhizomatous hardy perennial herb, 3-5′, attractive. Prefers well-drained, moist soil, sun to part shade. Propagate by division or seed (cold aids germination)
Viburnum opulus / pruni- folium Crampbark Bitter, astringent bark is sedative & antispasmodic, regulates uterine function. For menstrual, ovarian & post-partum pain, muscle cramps, miscarriage Hardy, deciduous shrub/tree, 15′+. Adaptable, prefer rich moist soil, sun or part shade. Propagate by cuttings or seed (requires several warm-cold cycles)
Viola tricolor Heart’s ease Cooling, bittersweet herb is anti-inflammatory, expectorant, promotes healing. Uses include cough, rheumatism, fevers, skin conditions (eczema), etc. Hardy annual / short-lived perennial herb, 12″, attractive. Moist, well-drained soil, sun-part shade; likes cool. Propagate by seed (autumn-spring); self-sows.
Vitex agnus-castus Chasteberry Pungent, bittersweet which regulates hormones. Primarily for gynecological problems including menstrual, menopausal (depression), breasts, etc. Deciduous shrub to 15′x15′, ornamental. Borderline hardy in zone 6. Tolerates poor, dry soil, prefers sun. Sow seed in spring, grow in container 1st year.
Withania somnifera Ashwaganda Warming, bittersweet root is tonic and sedative. Primary rejuvenative in Ayurvedic medicine: used for aging, debility, convalescence, insomnia,infertlity, etc Tender, evergreen shrub to 5′, often grown as annual. Prefers fertile, well-drained soil, sun. Sow seed in spring and set out when soil has warmed.
Xanthorhiza simplicissima Yellow root Bitter root is antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, immune stimulant and uterine tonic. A more easily grown substitute for (endangered) goldenseal. Hardy shrub, 2-3′, spreading by roots, attractive ground cover. Streamsides, low woods: prefers damp soil, sun/part shade. Prop. by division, root cuttings
Zea mays Corn silk Sweet silk is soothing and diuretic. Used for cystitis, urethritis, prostratitis,etc. Prevents formation of urinary stones Tender annual to 6′+. The familiar grain / vegetable. Prefers rich soil and full sun. Direct sow in spring when soil has warmed.
Zingiber officinalis Ginger Pungent, warming root is stimulant, expectorant and antispasmodic. Used for digestive problems (nausea), cough, colds & flu, circulatory problems, etc. Tender, rhizomatous perennial herb, 3′+. Prefers rich, moist, well-drained, neutral soil; sun to part shade. Divide roots (from grocery), plant in warm soil.
Ziziphus jujuba Jujube Sweet/sour fruit is soothing, sedative and tonic. Used for insomnia, digestive & nervous problems. Harmonizes herb formulas & neutralizes sids effects Hardy, deciduous small tree to 30′. Adaptable, fruits best in hot, dry areas. Propagate from root suckers, cuttings, or seed (difficult).
Hazards of Modern Medicine
By Barry Charles
Harmful effects, which can be serious and even lethal, are associated with every facet of modern medicine…
Iatrogenic illness–disease produced as a result of medical treatment–is now recognized as a health hazard of global proportions. MEDLINE (the computerized medical research database of the United States National Library of Medicine) includes over 7,000 articles, reports, and scientific research papers since 1966 that show a substantial number of patients suffer treatment-caused disorders and adverse drug reactions. These harmful effects, which can be serious and even lethal, are associated with every facet of modern medicine including drugs, other medical therapies, diagnostic procedures, and surgery.
Injury from medical treatment in the U.S. accounts for more deaths than all other accidents combined.
Detrimental effects have become so extensive as to prompt the use of the term “iatroepidemic 2″. Reporting in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Dr. Lucien Leape of Harvard School of Public Health, has calculated that “180,000 people die in the U.S. each year partly as a result of iatrogenic injury, the equivalent of three jumbo-jet crashes every two days 3″. In another issue, the Journal of the American Medical Association points out that injury from medical treatment in the U.S. “dwarfs the annual automobile accident mortality of 45,000 and accounts for more deaths than all other accidents combined 4″.
Medication caused disorder costs are nearly twice that spent on diabetes treatment and near the amount for cardiovascular disease.
For example, the Archives of Internal Medicine reported a cost to the U.S. economy of $76 billion in 1995. This amount is nearly twice that spent on diabetes treatment and near the amount for cardiovascular disease 5. Iatrogenic disease can be due to many factors. These include: errors in prescribing or administering drugs and other treatments; accidents; inappropriate use of diagnostic or therapeutic measures; and the intrinsic potential for harm and side effects associated with medications, surgery, and other procedures.
Fifteen per cent of hospital days are devoted to the treatment of drug side effects.
The hospital environment is especially conducive to medical hazards. Studies including those conducted at Harvard Medical School show that as many as 36 per cent of patients admitted to hospitals suffered iatrogenic injury with up to 25 per cent of those being serious or fatal. Up to half of these injuries were related to the use of medication 6.
The results of an analysis of cardiac arrests at a teaching hospital found that 64 per cent were preventable. Inappropriate use of drugs was the leading cause 7.
In addition to treatment-caused disorders, hospitals foster life-threatening nosocomial infections involving rare or drug-resistant microorganisms, which are often difficult to treat.
Every medication, including those that are sold over the counter without a prescription, has an associated side effect.
Commonly used drugs have been found to affect every system. Frequent reactions include skin rashes, nausea, headaches, dizziness, lethargy, diarrhea, and gastric bleeding in a significant number of people. More severe reactions that can be fatal or severely debilitating include deafness, depression, abnormal heart rhythms, angina, bronchospasm, electrolyte disturbances, immune system dysfunction, serious blood disorders such as aplastic anemia, liver or kidney toxicity, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, or anaphylactic shock. These occur in a statistically significant proportion of the population. Despite what is known about adverse drug effects, Dr. David Kessler, Chief of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, believes that “only one per cent of all serious drug reactions are reported 9.
The problem escalates to public health proportions when large numbers receive a treatment and experience its attendant side effect.
The New England Journal of Medicine makes this point in discussing the link between breast cancer and menopausal hormone replacement therapy: “because of the high incidence of breast cancer even a slight increase in risk will yield a substantial increase in the number of cancers10″. The scale of use causes drugs which are considered safe to end up producing significant damage. In this regard, the widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause over 3,300 deaths per year and 41,000 hospitalizations.
Many drugs have side effects serious enough to cause a secondary disease warranting its own intensive therapy.
An example is Parkinsonism caused by the neurological side effects of anti-depressants or anti-psychotic medication. A Harvard Medical School study showed that drugs were the real cause of the original symptoms in 37 per cent of elderly patients who were treated for Parkinson’s disease. L-dopa, the medication used in treating these patients has its own severe side effects, that often require the use of additional drugs to control11. Other examples of new diseases caused by medications include collagen vascular disease produced by blood pressure medications, and Cushing’s syndrome produced by prolonged cortico-steroid use. The New England Journal of Medicine has published several studies linking cancer chemotherapy to the later appearance of new malignancies 12. Many drugs are classified as teratogens and cause birth defects when taken during pregnancy. Others can cause diseases in offspring in later life.
Unfortunately, these effects may not become apparent until many thousands of women have taken a drug which had been enthusiastically introduced and promoted, the classic example being the tragic epidemic of birth defects in Europe due to thalidomide, or cancer in the children of mothers who took diethylstilbestrol.
Overuse of antibiotics has produced resistant strains of formerly susceptible micro-organisms. Serious concern has been voiced about the potential for epidemics which cannot be effectively contained due to drug resistance. An example of this is the emergence of tuberculosis that is resistant to presently available drugs.
A U.S. Congress Subcommittee found that in one year unnecessary operations were responsible for more than 12,000 deaths.
Studies also show substantial inappropriate and overuse of surgery, and continued use of outmoded operations. A U.S. Congress Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations into Unnecessary Surgery found that in one year, there were approximately two million unnecessary operations, responsible for more than 12,000 deaths, with an approximate cost wastage of $10 billion 13.
Dependency on high technology is a often a source of injury.
Dependency on high technology both in diagnosis and treatment has been shown to be a source of injury with machine failure or misapplication of technology. For example, 36 per cent of iatrogenic problems in intensive care units were associated with equipment malfunction 14.
Only 15 Percent of medical therapies were found to be reliable, or scientifically based.
In addition, medical care is often based on much less scientific evidence than assumed and undergoes radical reversals. The editor of the British Medical Journal revealed that only 15 per cent of all medical therapies have a scientific basis or have been demonstrated to be effective 15. Yet patients remain vulnerable. An example is the formerly common use of irradiation for enlargement of the thymus in infancy, a condition now recognized to be normal. This treatment has recently been shown to cause cancer in later life in those who received it 16.
Pharmaceutical companies push physicians to prescribe new drugs and don’t reveal scientific information that opposes the use of that drug.
Pharmaceutical marketing also puts great pressure on physicians to use new products. The medical journal Hospital Practice pointed out that pharmaceutical company competition “leads to very aggressive promotion and inundation of the physician with data supporting the use of each new drug”. Such marketing may dilute opposing scientific information that is not as well publicized. Ultimately drugs may be withdrawn, but only after substantial harm has been done. For example, benoxaprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) was introduced and heavily marketed in 1982, but then withdrawn after cases of fatal liver toxicity were reported in Great Britain. Zomepirac sodium was also “aggressively marketed as a safe analgesic”, but withdrawn after a year and numerous reports of fatal anaphylaxis17. The cardiac drugs flecainide and encainide, heavily promoted to control abnormal heart rhythms, were then withdrawn years later after scientific studies showed they caused fatal arrythmias and that those treated with them were two-and-one-half times as likely to die as were those taking a placebo.
Developing countries have had special problems with irrational drug marketing by multinational and indigenous pharmaceutical companies.
Developing countries, which have less stringent controls and means of surveillance, have had special problems with irrational drug marketing by multinational and indigenous pharmaceutical companies that have been carefully documented. These practices have been reviewed in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology by several authors including Dr. Philip Lee, the United States Assistant Secretary of Health. According to Dr. Lee and his colleagues, “unjustified claims of efficacy or safety continue to proliferate 18″. In addition to side effects, the high cost of pharmaceuticals are a significant hazard to the economy of developing countries.
The wealth of data has made clear that fundamental deficiencies exist in the current medical approach and that new knowledge is urgently needed.
Physicians and patients have come to accept medical hazards as a necessary price to pay for modern diagnosis and therapy even though they may be seriously debilitating or lethal. The same is true with medical errors. Studies have shown errors to be so pervasive that mistakes are considered to be an inevitable part of the medical system, giving rise to the term “necessary fallibility”19. The deplorable acceptance of disease or medical error as a consequence of treatment reflects a deviation from the most primary principle of medical ethics–primum non nocere–above all do no harm. The wealth of data documenting the serious nature and extent of the hazards associated with modern medicine has made clear that fundamental deficiencies exist in the current medical approach and that new knowledge is urgently needed to effectively address this problem.
1. USA Today. September 13, 1995.
2. Review of Respiratory Diseases. 1987; 135: 1152-1156.
3. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1994; 272: 1851-1857.
4. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995; 274: 29-34.
5. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1995; 155: 1949-1956.
6. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1964; 60: 100-110. New England Journal of Medicine. 1981; 304: 638-642. New England Journal of Medicine. 1991; 324: 370-376.
7. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1991; 265: 2815-2820.
8. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 1994.
9. US News and World Report. January 9, 1995: 49-54.
10. New England Journal of Medicine. 1994; 330: 1062-1071.
11. American Journal of Medicine. 1995; 99: 48-54.
12. New England Journal of Medicine. 1990; 322: 1-6
13. USA Today. October 31, 1983.
14. Nursing Clinics of North America. 1993; 28: 459-473.
15. British Medical Journal. 1991; 303: 798-799.
16. New England Journal of Medicine. 1989; 321: 1281-1284.
17. Hospital Practice. 1989; January 30: 89-94.
18. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1991; 44: 49S-55S.
19. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1989; 261: 1610-1617.
http://www.elephantjournal.com/2013/08/get-smart-and-lose-weight-with-this-saturated-fat/ more on coconut oil-
160 Uses For Coconut Oil by rastamama.com
80 Uses for Coconut Oil was by far my most viewed post of 2011. The response to the information I compiled blew me away. I am humbled by how much of an impact this post has made in the health and wellness scene. It has been reposted far and wide and it warms my heart to know that so many people are learning more and more about this beautiful oil.
Knowing how important it is to provide accurate and useful information, I decided to take my post to a new level. I have spent countless hours reading through all of the comments on this post (as well as those made on the numerous sites it is reprinted on). I have researched far and wide. And what I bring to you today is a much improved post on the benefits and uses of Coconut Oil. I have revamped some of the existing information, re-categorized the uses, and alphabetized everything to make it much more user friendly. The best part? There are now 160 uses for coconut oil listed. You read that right! I doubled the number of incredible uses for coconut oil.
I hope you enjoy this post and discover even more ways to use this amazing wonder of nature.
Coconut Oil – An Overview
Offering a myriad of health benefits, coconut oil is affordable, readily available and completely natural. I use it for EVERYTHING. Literally. I buy it in 5 gallon increments and keep it all over my house. I even have some in the car. So here is a little information to inspire you to check out this amazing oil!
Coconut Oil Is:
Anti-bacterial (kills bacteria that cause ulcers, throat infections, urinary tract infections, gum diseases, and other bacterial infections)
Anti-carcinogenic (coconut oil has antimicrobial properties so it effectively prevents the spread of cancer cells and enhances the immune system)
Anti-fungal (kills fungi and yeast that lead to infection)
Anti-inflammatory (appears to have a direct effect in suppressing inflammation and repairing tissue, and it may also contribute by inhibiting harmful intestinal microorganisms that cause chronic inflammation.)
Anti-microbial/Infection Fighting (the medium-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides found in coconut oil are the same as those in human mother’s milk, and they have extraordinary antimicrobial properties. By disrupting the lipid structures of microbes, they inactivate them. About half of coconut oil consists of lauric acid. Lauric acid, its metabolite monolaurin and other fatty acids in coconut oil are known to protect against infection from bacteria, viruses, yeast, fungi and parasites. While not having any negative effect on beneficial gut bacteria, coconut oil inactivates undesirable microbes.)
An Antioxidant (protects against free-radical formation and damage)
Anti-parasitic (fights to rid the body of tapeworms, lice and other parasites)
Anti-protozoa (kills giardia, a common protozoan infection of the gut)
Anti-retroviral (kills HIV and HLTV-1)
Anti-viral (kills viruses that cause influenza, herpes, measles, hepatitis C, SARS, AIDS, and other viruses)
Has no harmful for discomforting side effects
Known to improve nutrient absorption (easily digestible; makes vitamins and minerals more available to the body)
Nontoxic to humans and animals
Here is a chart outlining the recommended daily dosage of virgin coconut oil for persons over the age of 12. Coconut oil may be consumed by children under 12 but it is advisable to check with a healthcare practitioner on the proper dosage. Any good naturopath will have the information at the ready. (Starting at 12 months of age, I gave my daughter one teaspoon per day and she weighed about 16 pounds at that time.)
Weight in pounds/kilograms
Number of tablespoons of coconut oil daily
125+ / 57+
75+ / 34+
50+ / 23+
25+ / 11+
Type of Coconut Oil to Use:
Virgin (unrefined) coconut oil tastes and smells coconutty and is great for cooking and baking where you want that flavor. You can use it for anything but it will impart a coconut taste (mild) and odor (pleasant in my book)! Unrefined coconut oil retains the most nutritional value and is superior to refined oil.
Expeller pressed (refined) coconut oil can be used for anything. It does not have a coconutty smell or taste. It is still outstanding to use but does lose some of it’s health properties during the refining process.
Food grade should always be used.
160 Uses for Coconut Oil
Coconut Oil for Personal Hygiene/Body
1. Age Spots (also known as liver spots) – applying coconut oil directly to the age spot will help it fade.
2. After Shave – coconut oil will help heal your skin after shaving without clogging pores. Great for razor burn!
3. Baldness – apply three times a day to affected area of hair loss. Coconut oil supports cell regeneration.
4. Birth Marks – can be used after a laser removal treatment to aid in healing. Can also be applied after an apple cider vinegar treatment to help support and aid the fading process.
5. Body Scrub – mix coconut oil and sugar together and rub all over! Rinse off and your skin will be super soft! You can add in essential oils if you would like a specific smell.
6. Bruises – applied directly to the bruise, coconut oil enhances the healing process by reducing swelling and redness.
7. Bug Bites – when applied directly to a bug bite, coconut oil can stop the itching and burning sensation as well as hasten the healing process.
8. Burns – apply to burn site immediately and continue applying until healed. Will reduce the chances of permanent scarring and promotes healing.
9. Chapstick – just rub a little into lips and it not only acts as a softening agent but it also has an SPF of about 4 so you get a little protection!
10. Cradle Cap – having issues with dry skin on your baby’s scalp? Coconut oil will not only nourish your baby’s skin, it also helps eliminate cradle cap. Just rub a teaspoon onto scalp daily.
11. Dandruff – coconut oil soaks into the scalp moisturizing dry skin and relieves symptoms of dandruff. It also helps to control oil secretion from the scalp, another leading cause of dandruff.
12. Deodorant – coconut oil alone can be used as a deodorant, but even more effective in combination with cornstarch/arrowroot powder and baking soda!
13. Diaper Salve – very comforting on a rashy bum with no harsh chemicals. Also safe for cloth diapers.
14. Exfoliator – coconut oil mixed with sugar or sea salt is a very nourishing and effective exfoliator and safe to use all over the body.
15. Eye cream – apply under the eyes to reduce puffiness, bags and wrinkles. Use on the lids in the evening.
16. Face Wash/ Soap – mix equal parts coconut oil with olive oil, almond oil, avocado oil and castor oil and use in place of soap when washing your face. Wet face, rub oil in and leave on for two minutes, rinse and pat dry. One teaspoon should be adequate.
17. Hair conditioner/ Deep Treatment – use as a leave-in hair conditioner by applying a teaspoon of coconut oil to your ends and then running your fingers through your hair to distribute the rest! For a deeper treatment, rub in a tablespoon of coconut oil onto your dry scalp and gently work through to the ends. Put a shower cap on to prevent transfer onto bed linens and leave on overnight.
18. Hair Gel/ Defrizzer – rub a little between your palms and either scrunch into hair (for curly hair) or finger comb in through from scalp to ends (for wavy/straight hair).
19. Healing – when applied on scrapes and cuts, coconut oil forms a thin, chemical layer which protects the wound from outside dust, bacteria and virus. Coconut oil speeds up the healing process of bruises by repairing damaged tissues. Plus, it smells a heck-of-a-lot better than anything from the pharmacy.
20. Lubricant – it is an all-natural, perfectly safe personal lubricant. Not compatible with latex!
21. Makeup Remover – use a cotton swab and a dab of coconut oil and you would be amazed at how well it works!
22. Massage Oil – pretty simple; grab some and rub!
23. Moisturizer – simply scoop some out of the jar and apply all over your body, including neck and face.
24. Mole Remover – when applied after an apple cider vinegar compress for several weeks, moles have been known to “slide off” or just disappear.
25. Nipple Cream – works great to nourish cracked, sore or dry nipples. Apply to a cotton ball and leave on your nipples between feedings.
26. Oily Skin Fix – prone to oily skin or an oily T-zone? Use a pea sized amount underneath makeup or alone to reduce the appearance of oil.
27. Pre Shampoo Treatment for Hair – rub a little into scalp and hair before shampooing. This is especially useful for those with course or frizzy hair.
28. Pre-Shave – coconut oil will prep skin for the pending damage caused by shaving.
29. Skin Problems – coconut oil relieves skin problems such as psoriasis, dermatitis, and eczema.
30. Stretch Mark Cream – coconut oil is great at nourishing damaged skin. It may not be the magic stretch mark cure but it will help.
31. Sun Burn Relief – rub liberal amounts of coconut oil into the affected area.
32. Sunscreen – see my post on natural sunscreen for more detailed information.
33. Swimmers Ear – mix garlic oil and coconut oil and put a few drops in affected ear for about 10 minutes. Do this 2-3 times a day and it usually works within one or two days.
34. Tattoo Healing and Moisturizer – continued use of coconut oil on tattoos will help keep the pigment from fading. Used on new tattoos, coconut will hasten the healing process and decrease the chance of infection.
35. Toothpaste – there are numerous recipes out there but I just mix coconut oil and baking soda and dab a little of the mix on my toothbrush.
36. Wrinkle Prevention and Wrinkle Reducer – rubbing coconut oil on winkles and sagging skin helps strengthen the connective tissues to bring back that youthful look!
Coconut Oil for General Health and Wellness
37. Breastfeeding – for breastfeeding moms, consuming 3 ½ tablespoons of coconut oil daily will enrich the milk supply.
38. Bones and Teeth – coconut oil aids in the absorption of calcium and magnesium leading to better development of bones and teeth.
39. Digestion – the saturated fats in coconut oil help control parasites and fungi that cause indigestion and other digestion related problems such as irritable bowel syndrome. The fat in coconut oil also aids in the absorption of vitamins, minerals and amino acids, making you healthier all around.
40. Energy Boost – coconut oil boosts energy and endurance making it a great supplement for athletes as well as those needed a quick pick me up.
41. Fitness – coconut oil has been proven to stimulate your metabolism, improve thyroid function, and escalate energy levels, all of which help decrease your unwanted fat while increasing muscle.
42. Improves insulin secretion and utilization of blood glucose making it great for both diabetics and non-diabetic.
43. Lung Function – increases the fluidity of cell surfaces.
44. Nausea – rub some coconut oil on the inside for the wrist and forearm to calm an upset stomach.
45. Nose bleeds – coconut oil can prevent nose bleeding that is caused by sensitivity to weather such as extreme heat and extreme cold. This condition happens when the nasal passages become dry because of cold or dry air resulting to burns and cracks in the mucus membranes so bleeding happens. To prevent this just put coconut oil in you nostrils. Coat your finger with coconut oil and then lie down and coat your finger inside your nose. Doing this will strengthen and protect the capillaries in the nasal passages. A Vitamin C supplement will also help prevent nose bleeding.
46. Oil pulling with coconut oil offers a two for one health benefit!
47. Stress Relief – relieve mental fatigue by applying coconut oil to the head in a circular, massaging motion. The natural aroma of coconuts is extremely soothing thus helping to lower your stress level.
48. Vitamin and nutrient absorption
49. Weight loss – the saturated fats contribute to weight loss and controlling cravings. Also increases metabolic rate.
Coconut Oil for Health Problems (when taken internally it is known for aiding, preventing, relieving or even curing these health issues)
50. Acid reflux/indigestion aid if taken after a meal
51. Adrenal fatigue
52. Allergies (seasonal hay fever)
54. Asthma, even in children
56. Bowel function
57. Bronchial Infections
58. Cancer (has been shown to prevent colon and breast cancer in laboratory
59. Candida Albicans
60. Cholesterol – improves HDL (‘good’ cholesterol) to LDL (‘bad’ cholesterol)
ratio in people with high cholesterol
61. Chronic Fatigue
62. Crohns Disease and resulting inflammation
63. Circulation/feeling cold all the time
64. Colds and Flus
66. Cystic Fibrosis
68. Diabetes – helps keep blood sugar levels stable and/or helps with
70. Eczema – in addition to taking it internally, many have success applying
it externally, but some don’t
72. Energy boost
73. Epilepsy (known to reduce epileptic seizures)
74. Fever Support
75. Flaky, Dry Skin
76. Gallbladder disease and pain
78. H. pylori
79. Head Lice
80. Heart Disease (protects arteries from injury that causes atherosclerosis)
81. Hemorrhoids (can applied externally or internally twice a day)
83. Hot Flashes
85. Immune System Builder
86. Irritable Bowel Syndrome
88. Kidney Disease
89. Kidney Stones (aids in dissolving them)
90. Liver Disease
91. Lung Disease
93. Mental Clarity
94. Menstruation Relief regarding pain/cramps and heavy blood flow
95. Migraines (with regular use)
100. Periodontal Disease and tooth decay
101. Prostate Enlargement (benign prostatic hyperplasia)
103. Skin problems
105. Stomach Ulcers
106. Toenail fungus
108. Thyroid Function (regulates an overactive or underactive thyroid)
109. Ulcerative Colitis
110. Underactive thyroid gland – results have shown subsequent thyroid
blood tests becoming normal after ingesting coconut oil daily
111. Urinary Tract Infections (Bladder Infections)
Coconut Oil and Health Problems (when applied topically it is known for aiding, relieving, or even curing these health issues)
113. Allergies/Hay Fever – rub a little inside the nostrils for quick relief. The
pollen will cling to the oil.
114. Athletes foot
115. Back pain/sore muscles
116. Boils and cysts
117. Canker sores
119. Circumcision healing – although I am personally against circumcision, I
have read that coconut oil is a really great healer for this.
120. Decongestant – rub coconut oil on the chest and under the nose when
congested from a cold or allergies
121. Ear infection – place a few drops inside the ear twice daily for relief from
pain. Also fights the infection itself.
122. Genital Warts (through topical application over 6 weeks, and coconut oil
enemas twice a day depending on the location of the warts)
123. Gum Disease and Gingivitis (use as a toothpaste or rub directly on
124.Herpes (applied topically and taken internally)
125.Hives (reduces the itch and swelling
126. Pink eye (applied around and in the eye)
Coconut Oil and Cooking
130. Butter Substitute – use 1 cup to 1 cup ratio when replacing butter in
recipes with coconut oil.
131. Nutritional Supplement – melt and add to smoothies.
132. Replacement for butter/lard/Crisco/PAM in its solid form for greasing
pans, pie crusts, etc.
133. Replacement for various oils in liquid form – baking, cooking, sautéing,
Coconut Oil and Pets/Animals
Check with your veterinarian but the recommended dosage for animals is 1/4 teaspoon for every 10 pounds of body weight twice daily.
134. Aids healing of digestive disorders like inflammatory bowel syndrome
135. Aids in arthritis or ligament problems
136. Aids in elimination of hairballs and coughing
137. Applied topically, promotes the healing of cuts, wounds, hot spots, dry
skin and hair, bites and stings
138. Clears up skin conditions such as eczema, flea allergies, contact
dermatitis, and itchy skin
139. Disinfects cuts and promotes wound healing
140. Great for dogs and cats for general wellness. Just add a teaspoon to
their water bowl daily.
141. Helps prevent or control diabetes
142. Helps sedentary dogs feel energetic
143. Helps reduce weight, increases energy
144. Improves digestion and nutrient absorption
145. Makes coats become sleek and glossy, and deodorizes doggy odor
146. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) have been shown to improve brain
energy metabolism and decrease the amyloid protein buildup that
results in brain lesions in older dogs.
147. Prevents and treats yeast and fungal infections, including candida
148. Reduces allergic reactions and improves skin health
149. Reduces or eliminates bad breath in dogs
150. Regulates and balance insulin and promotes normal thyroid function
Other Uses for Coconut Oil
151. Chewing Gum in Hair Remover – just rub some coconut oil over the
stuck chewing gum, leave in for about 30 minutes, then roll the gum
between your fingertip. Voila! It’s out!
152. Goo Gone – just mix equal parts coconut oil and baking soda into a
paste. Apply to the “sticky” area and let it set for a minute. Then scrub
off with an old toothbrush or the scrubby side of a sponge.
153. Insect repellent – mix coconut oil with peppermint oil extract and rub it
all over exposed skin. Keeps insects off better than anything with DEET!
Tons safer too.
154. Moisturizing and cleaning leather products
155. Oiling wood cutting boards and wood bowls
156. Polishing Bronze – all you have to do is rub a little oil into a cotton
towel and then wipe down the statue. It cleans and helps deepen the
color of your bronze.
157. Polish Furniture – coconut oil with a little bit of lemon juice to polish
wood furniture. However, I recommend you test it first on a very small,
unobtrusive part of your furniture to make sure it works the way you’d like.
158. Seasoning animal hide drums
159. Seasoning cookware
160. Soap making – coconut oil can be used as one of the fats in soap.
Did I miss any? Do you use coconut oil for something not on my list? Please add it in the comments. I am always excited to find new ways to implement coconut oil!
I have also written several other posts about coconut oil that you may be interested in reading. A few are listed here but please check my Coconut Health page regularly as I update that with my twice monthly posts related to coconut oil:
•Coconut Oil Unleashed – Reader Questions Answered
•Coconut Oil and Dememtia (Including Alzheimer’s)
•Coconut Oil and Digestive Disorders/Colon Health
•Coconut Oil for Hashimoto’s Disease and Thyroid Issues
•Coconut Oil and Oil Pulling
•Coconut and Pregnancy (coconut products in general are discussed)
•Eating Traditional Foods and The Blood Type Diet (coconut oil is discussed in this post but is not the focus)
•Let’s Talk About Fats Baby! (discusses coconut oil as a healthy source of fat in your diet)
•Nipples, Lady Bits, Coconut Oil – Oh My!
Interested in purchasing coconut oil? Check out my Products I Love page to find out what brands I use, love, and endorse!
You can also check out these books for further information on coconut oil:
•Virgin Coconut Oil by Brian and Marianita Shilhavy
•Eat Fat Lose Fat: The Healthy Alternative to Trans Fats by Mary Enig, PhD, and Sally Fallon
•The Coconut Oil Miracle Revised and Coconut Cures both by Bruce Fife.
thanks to- http://www.HybridRastaMama.com
The Tree of Life
The scientific name for coconut is Cocos nucifera. Early Spanish explorers called it coco, which means “monkey face” because the three indentations (eyes) on the hairy nut resembles the head and face of a monkey. Nucifera means “nut-bearing.”
The coconut provides a nutritious source of meat, juice, milk, and oil that has fed and nourished populations around the world for generations. On many islands coconut is a
Harvested coconuts lined up on the beach.
staple in the diet and provides the majority of the food eaten. Nearly one third of the world’s population depends on coconut to some degree for their food and their economy. Among these cultures the coconut has a long and respected history.
Coconut is highly nutritious and rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. It is classified as a “functional food” because it provides many health benefits beyond its nutritional content. Coconut oil is of special interest because it possesses healing properties far beyond that of any other dietary oil and is extensively used in traditional medicine among Asian and Pacific populations. Pacific Islanders consider coconut oil to be the cure for all illness. The coconut palm is so highly valued by them as both a source of food and medicine that it is called “The Tree of Life.” Only recently has modern medical science unlocked the secrets to coconut’s amazing healing powers.
Coconut In Traditional Medicine
People from many diverse cultures, languages, religions, and races scattered around the globe have revered the coconut as a valuable source of both food and medicine. Wherever the coconut palm grows the people have learned of its importance as a effective medicine. For thousands of years coconut products have held a respected and valuable place in local folk medicine.
In traditional medicine around the world coconut is used to treat a wide variety of health problems including the following: abscesses, asthma, baldness, bronchitis, bruises, burns, colds, constipation, cough, dropsy, dysentery, earache, fever, flu, gingivitis, gonorrhea, irregular or painful menstruation, jaundice, kidney stones, lice, malnutrition, nausea, rash, scabies, scurvy, skin infections, sore throat, swelling, syphilis, toothache, tuberculosis, tumors, typhoid, ulcers, upset stomach, weakness, and wounds.
Coconut In Modern Medicine
Modern medical science is now confirming the use of coconut in treating many of the above conditions. Published studies in medical journals show that coconut, in one form or another, may provide a wide range of health benefits. Some of these are summarized below:
Kills viruses that cause influenza, herpes, measles, hepatitis C, SARS, AIDS, and other illnesses.
Kills bacteria that cause ulcers, throat infections, urinary tract infections, gum disease and cavities, pneumonia, and gonorrhea, and other diseases.
Kills fungi and yeasts that cause candidiasis, ringworm, athlete’s foot, thrush, diaper rash, and other infections.
Expels or kills tapeworms, lice, giardia, and other parasites.
Provides a nutritional source of quick energy.
Boosts energy and endurance, enhancing physical and athletic performance.
Improves digestion and absorption of other nutrients including vitamins, minerals, and amino acids.
Improves insulin secretion and utilization of blood glucose.
Relieves stress on pancreas and enzyme systems of the body.
Reduces symptoms associated with pancreatitis.
Helps relieve symptoms and reduce health risks associated with diabetes.
Reduces problems associated with malabsorption syndrome and cystic fibrosis.
Improves calcium and magnesium absorption and supports the development of strong bones and teeth.
Helps protect against osteoporosis.
Helps relieve symptoms associated with gallbladder disease.
Relieves symptoms associated with Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and stomach ulcers.
Improves digestion and bowel function.
Relieves pain and irritation caused by hemorrhoids.
Supports tissue healing and repair.
Supports and aids immune system function.
Helps protect the body from breast, colon, and other cancers.
Is heart healthy; improves cholesterol ratio reducing risk of heart disease.
Protects arteries from injury that causes atherosclerosis and thus protects against heart disease.
Helps prevent periodontal disease and tooth decay.
Functions as a protective antioxidant.
Helps to protect the body from harmful free radicals that promote premature aging and degenerative disease.
Does not deplete the body’s antioxidant reserves like other oils do.
Improves utilization of essential fatty acids and protects them from oxidation.
Helps relieve symptoms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Relieves symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (prostate enlargement).
Reduces epileptic seizures.
Helps protect against kidney disease and bladder infections.
Dissolves kidney stones.
Helps prevent liver disease.
Is lower in calories than all other fats.
Supports thyroid function.
Promotes loss of excess weight by increasing metabolic rate.
Is utilized by the body to produce energy in preference to being stored as body fat like other dietary fats.
Helps prevent obesity and overweight problems.
Applied topically helps to form a chemical barrier on the skin to ward of infection.
Reduces symptoms associated the psoriasis, eczema, and dermatitis.
Supports the natural chemical balance of the skin.
Softens skin and helps relieve dryness and flaking.
Prevents wrinkles, sagging skin, and age spots.
Promotes healthy looking hair and complexion.
Provides protection from damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
Helps control dandruff.
Does not form harmful by-products when heated to normal cooking temperature like other vegetable oils do.
Has no harmful or discomforting side effects.
Is completely non-toxic to humans.
See Research to read some of the published studies regarding the above mentioned uses of coconut products.
While coconut possesses many health benefits due to its fiber and nutritional content, it’s the oil that makes it a truly remarkable food and medicine.
Once mistakenly believed to be unhealthy because of its high saturated fat content, it is now known that the fat in coconut oil is a unique and different from most all other fats and possesses many health giving properties. It is now gaining long overdue recognition as a nutritious health food.
Coconut oil has been described as “the healthiest oil on earth.” That’s quite a remarkable statement. What makes coconut oil so good? What makes it different from all other oils, especially other saturated fats?
The difference is in the fat molecule. All fats and oils are composed of molecules called fatty acids. There are two methods of classifying fatty acids. The first you are probably familiar with, is based on saturation. You have saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats. Another system of classification is based on molecular size or length of the carbon chain within each fatty acid. Fatty acids consist of long chains of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached. In this system you have short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Coconut oil is composed predominately of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), also known as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT).
The vast majority of fats and oils in our diets, whether they are saturated or unsaturated or come from animals or plants, are composed of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Some 98 to 100% of all the fatty acids you consume are LCFA.
The size of the fatty acid is extremely important. Why? Because our bodies respond to and metabolize each fatty acid differently depending on its size. So the physiological effects of MCFA in coconut oil are distinctly different from those of LCFA more commonly found in our foods. The saturated fatty acids in coconut oil are predominately medium-chain fatty acids. Both the saturated and unsaturated fat found in meat, milk, eggs, and plants (including most all vegetable oils) are composed of LCFA.
MCFA are very different from LCFA. They do not have a negative effect on cholesterol and help to protect against heart disease. MCFA help to lower the risk of both atherosclerosis and heart disease. It is primarily due to the MCFA in coconut oil that makes it so special