the medicine of choice for disorders should always first be their tautopathic “simillimum” — a potency prepared from the very drug, toxin or EMF itself! As our previous review has shown, throughout the classical era of homeopathy, many practitioners had come to the same conclusion,2 even though the practice of tautopathy remained controversial among those homeopaths who had adopted certain “mystical” concepts into homeopathy.11
Acute effects of mustard gas reduced by tautopathic treatment
One of the earliest studies on the effects of tautopathic treatment was conducted by the British Homoeopathic Society and the Ministry of Home Security during World War II. John Paterson, the president of the Society, along with W. Lees Templeton, headed a “Gas Research Committee” to coordinate research conducted in Glasgow and London. The trials were conducted under carefully controlled conditions, with the blinded use of placebo control groups, a rare feature of clinical trials at the time. In the Glasgow trials, Mustard gas 30c or placebo was given to volunteers before real mustard gas was applied to their forearm. Of the treated group two cases showed deep lesions and twelve cases did not show any deep lesions from mustard gas. However, twelve volunteers in the placebo group had deep skin lesions, while only two did not have deep lesions. Similar experiments were conducted in London. A report showed that statistically significant improvement or prevention was observed during these trials from the tautopathic Mustard gas 30c.12 Unfortunately, the Ministry of Home Security dismissed these positive results despite unusually advanced controls and trial designs.
Tautotherapy of drug-induced cancers with potencies of the same drug
A study published in 1983 by Roberfroid in Aspects of Research in Homeopathy titled “Action of Hahnemannian Potencies upon Artificially Produced Cancer in Animals” confirmed the tautopathic strategy after testing the homeopathic drug Phenobarbital in the 9th centesimal potency in vivo on phenobarbital-induced liver tumors in rats, yielding positive results.13 The researchers examined the action of Phenobarbital 9c on 2-acetylaminofluorine-induced cancer in mice (using phenobarbital as tumor promoter) and found that the potentized drug reduced the formation of hepatocarcinoma in rats after chronic feeding of 2AAF and PB for several weeks. This would also appear to confirm the tautopathic hypothesis that the potentized drug can remove or reverse the action of the crude drug it is prepared from, without regard to the precise symptoms it induces.13
Many of our most active classical homeopathic cancer drugs are, in fact, originally derived from environmental carcinogens, such as arsenic, cadmium, aluminum and aluminum silicate.
Chronic poisoning from environmental toxins
Carbon tetrachloride, an industrial solvent, fire retardant and refrigerant, is an occupational and environmental poison causing hepatotoxicity, neurological disorders, and kidney damage. Since a 2008 study which reported that high concentrations of carbon tetrachloride were found in common cleaning products, the poison has been replaced in soap and other cleaning products. However, many patients had already absorbed toxic levels of this poison, thereby harming their health.
As early as the 1970s, researchers studied preventive tautopathic treatment by administering simple dilutions of non-lethal doses of carbon tetrachloride to mice prior to exposing them to the poison in lethal doses. The study showed the beginning of a protective action within twelve hours after administration, reaching its full extent after 24 hours. Activity of aminopyrine demethylase and cytochrome P-450 concentrations began to fall immediately after administration of the low dose of carbon tetrachloride; by 24 hours the enzyme system was about one-fourth of control levels, achieving full protection against the lethal doses. Note that these were not homeopathic doses, yet they had substantial effects.14
Veterinary surgeons in France have been employing a homeopathic emergency treatment for dogs and cats with acute poisoning from neurotoxic agents, including arsenic, using the drug Arsenicum album. The drug is prescribed when symptoms of muscular hyperexcitability, aggravation of visual, auditory and tactile stimuli, and general anxiety are present. Bostin et al. found that the treatment had no side effects, and that only four out of fifty animals died.15 In his report on a trial he asked the legitimate question why the homeopathic treatment that matched the symptoms worked, even when arsenic was not the causative neurotoxic agent. Clinical research in humans has since confirmed that tautopathic treatment of arsenic poisoning can be highly effective.
In a series of experiments,16-27 West Bengal researchers investigated if tautopathic treatment with Arsenicum album 30c could help remove arsenic from the body in patients who had become contaminated by arsenic from their drinking water. The lead researcher Professor Anisur Raman Khuda-Bukhsh commented on the studies: “The drug reduced arsenic levels in blood and urine of arsenic victims from Ghetugachhi village in Nadia district.” “The blood levels of the toxicity-denoting liver enzymes (like aspartate aminotransferase) returned to almost normal levels after three months,” he added.
The scientists found that the arsenic level in urine fell dramatically and levels in blood became normal by the 60th day. The researchers also observed an increase in the level of glutathione — a compound made up of amino acids — which demonstrates recovery of normal liver function.
In one of the studies,21 published in the March 2006 issue of Evidence-based Complimentary and Alternative Medicine, the researchers treated arsenic victims from another village in the Nadia district. They showed that two centesimal potencies (30 and 200) of the aforementioned medicine brought the high levels of anti-nuclear antibodies (a type of antibody that works against the body tissues) to normal levels. Stating, “We have already shown efficiency of homoeopathic drugs in protecting or repairing arsenic-induced DNA damage in mice,” Khuda-Bukhsh then concludes: “But one hypothesis to explain such changes could be that signals carried by potentized homeopathic drugs might be able to trigger a cascade action of relevant genes back to their normal functioning.”
A more recent study,20 published in Science of the Total Environment, and conducted in collaboration with researchers of the Boiron Laboratory, Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon in France, once again confirmed biological action from treatment with homeopathic potencies. The researchers administered Arsenicum album 30c, succussed alcohol or placebo to groups of randomly selected, arsenic-contaminated volunteers in Padumbasan, India.
The treatment caused positive changes in elevated blood levels of ESR, creatinine and eosinophils. In the treated group, Arsenicum album 30c increased the activities of various toxicity biomarkers indicating hepatotoxicity (the prime feature associated with arsenic poisoning) notably AST, ALT, LPO, and GGT. This therapy showed an increase in levels of hemoglobin, PCV, neutrophil percentages and GSH content, and lowered G-6-PD activity. Most of the subjects reported a better appetite and an improvement in general health. It is interesting that the 14 volunteers who dropped out during this study were mostly from the placebo group. The authors concluded that Arsenicum album 30c could possibly provide interim health support to a large population at risk.
The results of these studies could lead to certain conclusions on the role that homeopathy can play in mitigating the effects of a substance that, according to California’s Proposition 65, is considered a potent carcinogen. Treatment with the homeopathic drug Arsenicum album produces protective effects against arsenic trioxide and against arsenic in the groundwater that is measurable on multiple levels and even in the DNA.
Several studies by the above West Bengal team in collaboration with researchers from Boiron Labs were published in the Journal of Veterinary Medicine.22-28 In one study29 the team injected arsenic trioxide into mice, and then treated one group with the homeopathic remedy Arsenicum album (a drug prepared from arsenic trioxide by progressive succussion and dilution) and another group with potentized alcohol, while a third group remained untreated. This trial used a double-blinded procedure. Oral administration appeared to show protective potential against arsenic trioxide-induced chronic poisoning in mice. There was a marked reduction of various chromosomal, nuclear, and sperm head abnormalities, which would signify an anti-genotoxic effect from the homeopathic remedy. This series of trials corroborated the results of previous studies that a homeopathic drug made from the very toxin that had caused the poisoning could have an effect, in this case, on wheat seedlings from seed poisoned by arsenic.30 In 1987, a French trial of decimal and centesimal dilutions of arsenic had shown effects on the retention and mobilization of arsenic in the rat.31
The West Bengal group also examined the effect of homeopathic treatment on cellular damage produced by another group of toxins: they tested whether two potencies of the homeopathic drug, Cadmium sulphuricum could reduce the genotoxic effects of a cadmium salt, cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in mice.32 Genotoxic effects constitute damage to the DNA of a cell, including mutation and possibly neoplasms. The researchers also tried to determine the relative efficacy of three different administrative modes, i.e. pre-feeding, post-feeding and combined pre- and post-feeding of the medicines. The authors concluded that both Cadmium sulphuricum 30c and 200c were able to counteract cadmium-induced genotoxic effects in mice. They found that the combined pre- and post-feeding mode of administration was most effective in reducing the genotoxic effect of CdCl2. These results are evidence that homeopathic treatment may be effective for prophylaxis and for recovery from serious environmental and occupational toxic disorders.
An older trial33 had shown mobilization of cadmium in toad embryos of the species Bufo arenarum from tautopathic doses of diluted and stirred solutions of cadmium — prepared in a very similar way to homeopathic potencies. And yet another study34 found protective effects at low concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium and cisplatin) against cytotoxic doses of these very same metals on renal tubular cell cultures, another non-homeopathic example of tautopathic treatment. In an investigation35 of homeopathic/tautopathic treatment of environmental intoxication, de Gerlache reported that ultra-low (homeopathic) doses of a number of carcinogens showed modulation of experimental rat liver carcinogenesis.
In a similar experiment in humans, Montfort studied a tautopathic combination treatment using environmental toxins.36 He reported on the results of his experiments using ultra-diluted 10c and 12c potencies of toxic chemicals used for 3-24 months in cancer patients, usually in conjunction with conventional treatment. With this procedure, complete remission or life extension was achieved for some cancer cases. Montfort et al. presented three clinical cases: a man with undifferentiated lung cancer; a child with an astrocytoma and a woman with leiomyosarcoma. These results deserve to be studied further.
The successful use of potentized carcinogens in cancer treatment appears to be an, as of yet, mostly untapped resource for new cancer drugs. Fisher37,38 conducted a trial treating experimental lead intoxication in rats with the homeopathic remedies Plumbum metallicum and Penicilamine, observing the influence of the homeopathic remedy Plumbum metallicum on the excretion kinetics of lead in rats.
Amelioration of genotoxic effects from a heavy metal by repeated doses of potencies of the metal
Mercury is a very poisonous heavy metal and environmental toxin that can cause multiple serious disorders when it enters the body. Nevertheless, pharmaceutical manufacturers have added it to a variety of drugs and vaccines, including those to be injected into infants and pregnant women, where it can cause serious injury. Research dating back to 1985 using tautopathic treatment with the homeopathic drug Mercurius corrosivus in infinitesimal dilutions found that it influenced the mortality induced by mercuric chloride, and that the treatment increased excretion of the toxin.39
More recently, researchers of the West Bengal team conducted a trial40 with the homeopathic drug Mercurius solubilis. The researchers tested the drug in the 30c and 200c potencies, fed in three administrative modes to mice who had been poisoned with mercuric chloride. The treatment caused amelioration of genotoxic effects, as measured by conventional endpoints, i.e., chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, mitotic index and sperm head anomalies. The amelioration using Mercurius 200c seemed to be slightly more pronounced. The researchers concluded that potentized drugs can serve as possible anti-genotoxic agents against specific environmental mutagens, including the toxic heavy metal mercury. By the way, we do not recommend using homeopathic Mercurius preparations to counter chronic mercury intoxication, since experience shows symptoms are often aggravated by that approach.
Desensitization and immunotherapy
A Google search result appearing first in the listing when the phrase “law of similars” is entered states that the homeopathic “Law of Similars” is “paradoxical,” as if this means that the central tenet of homeopathy is therefore untrue or implausible. (Google has since removed this search result.) It should be noted that such paradoxical effects have also been observed in conventional medicine. At least two of these effects are used as common modern medical therapies. Strangely, Google does not call these therapies “paradoxical,” a fact that underscores Google’s anti-homeopathy bias. There is no doubt that the widely used allergy desensitization therapy is, according to our above definition, a form of tautopathy or isotherapy, which makes use of such an effect by injecting very high dilutions of allergens into patients in order to achieve desensitization. Allergens are injected in dilutions prepared from agents that have caused a disease syndrome, such as hay fever or asthma. During desensitization therapy, the causative agent is injected into the patient to achieve amelioration or even complete recovery from the allergy. The current term for this allopathic method of treatment is “allergy vaccination” or “allergy immunotherapy.”
Allopathic allergy desensitization actually uses high dilutions; however, they are simple dilutions and distinctly different from the serially agitated homeopathic infinitesimal dilutions. As a rule, this therapy is individualized and based on antibody tests conducted to identify the reagents. Minute doses of the offending allergen are then administered by injection. Occasionally, anaphylactic reactions occur, requiring emergency medical treatment.
Homeopathy uses potentized allergens to alleviate symptoms of allergies in a similar manner, in both infinitesimal as well as lower potencies. However, the homeopathic or tautopathic immunotherapy is administered with ordinary sublingual doses, although in very sensitive patients the olfactory dose is usually preferred. Rarely, additional dilutions are used when patients have experienced aggravation of symptoms from a previous homeopathic dose. Hahnemann left detailed instructions on how to individualize the dose of even highly potentized drugs for sensitive people in the 6th edition of the Organon.41 Homeopathic allergy immunotherapy is very safe and no anaphylactic reactions ever occur.
The efficacy of tautopathic immunotherapy has been investigated in a number of studies using potentized allergens in homeopathic potencies. Often erroneously termed “isopathy” by researchers, this method also comes under the definition of tautopathy (see above definition). This is especially the case when an allergen routinely produces a clearly defined and specific group of symptoms, and provided that the allergen given in potency is shown to relieve the syndrome. For example, the common ailment “hay fever,” an allergic rhinitis syndrome with systemic effects, is typical for allergic reactions produced by exposure of subjects sensitive to Galphimia glauca.
A randomized controlled trial (RCT)42 compared the effects of “homeopathically” potentized preparations of this plant by administering a 6x potency four times while symptoms persisted. The authors found that the “homeopathic” preparation (Galphimia glauca 6x) demonstrated a clear trend in superiority to placebo and an additional control. The control was a simple dilution of the plant tincture (unpotentized — without the succussion). This standard dilution had no biological or clinical effect, confirming observations by homeopaths.
A combination remedy prepared from common allergens such as tree, grass, and weed species of the US Southwest was tested43 in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess whether it had efficacy in treating seasonal allergic rhinitis. The study showed benefits from the tautopathic drug in ameliorating hay fever symptoms.
In his review of respiratory allergy studies entitled “Advances in homeopathy and immunology: a review of clinical research,” Bellavite44 examined 27 studies, (18 randomized and nine observational). The evidence shows significant promise: for example potentized Galphimia glauca given in allergic oculorhinitis (hay fever).45 On the other hand, not all studies have shown benefit. A study investigating treatment with a tautopathic preparation of dust-mite failed to show amelioration in the treated patients suffering from dust-mite allergies.46 In two well-designed placebo-controlled trials,47 patients with birch pollen allergies did not have any ameliorating or preventive effects from treatment with Betula 30c.48
The allopathic practice of vaccination is a second form of isotherapy that should be called paradoxical by Google. Vaccination is the inoculation with an attenuated, weakened, or killed form of the microbe responsible for a specific infectious disease in order to achieve immunity from that disease. Both allergic desensitization and the practice of vaccination have their origin in Hahnemann’s homeopathic principles. Experts in the field have long supported this view. Nobel prize winner Emil Adolf von Behring, known for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin is quoted49 as having said: “In spite of all scientific speculations and experiments regarding smallpox vaccination, Jenner’s discovery remained an erratic blocking medicine till the biochemically thinking Pasteur, devoid of all medical classroom knowledge, traced the origin of this therapeutic block to a principle which cannot better be characterized than by Hahnemann’s word: homeopathic.” For brevity’s sake, we will refrain here from reviewing scientific studies that show the efficacy of these too widespread forms of allopathic tautopathy.
Inoculations have also been conducted for the purpose of treating cancer and a wide variety of chronic disorders. Some of them used microbial toxins in more or less crude forms for cancer isotherapy. Perhaps even the well-known Coley’s toxins, which aimed at stimulating an immune response, were inspired by the isopathic principle.50 In the 1970s American physician Virginia Livingston-Wheeler51 believed a microbe she called Progenitor cryptocides was responsible for cancer. Using the isopathic approach for treatment of cancer, she inoculated cancer patients with a vaccine containing a mixture of several microbes she believed to be Progenitor cryptocides, accompanied by whole food dietary therapy.
Similar attempts at isotherapy had been made by homeopaths at least a century earlier when Hering and even Hahnemann proposed treatment with Psorinum,52 a preparation believed to derive from the scabies mite and used for a variety of conditions. Eventually, however, the drug was proven and prescribed according to homeopathic, not isopathic indications. Years later, the eminent French physician Leon Vannier53 experimented with treating cancer with Oscillococcinum, a nosode prepared from liver and heart tissue of cairina ducks believed to be infected by “oscillococcus,” given on isopathic indications. Vannier observed treatment with the nosode induced a general immune response in cancer patients, which slowed the progression of cancer. Since then, modern studies have been conducted using Oscillococcinum for treatment of influenza; however, a 2000 review54 found only scanty efficacy for the treatment of flu-like infections.
Many other nosodes, including Carcinosinum were used in homeopathy to treat cancer and other diseases. Several recent studies have shown that this homeopathic preparation, believed to derive from the discharge from a breast tumor, induced protective, ameliorative, apoptotic and cytotoxic effects against cancer.
(1) A controlled study55 investigating the effects of Carcinosinum 200c and Chelidonium 200c, fed separately and in combination, found “considerable ameliorative effects” in hepatocarcinoma induced by p-dimethylaminoazobenzene and phenobarbital. The ameliorative effects included reduction in tumor size and improvements in toxic biomarkers such as acid and alkaline phosphatases, glutamine oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and lipid peroxidation activity.
(2) Two studies 56,57 examined the cytotoxic activity of the 30c and 200c potencies of ten homeopathic drugs including Carcinosinum against Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA), Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC), lung fibroblast (L929) and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines, and compared the potentized drugs’ activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The control used was potentized alcohol. Mother tinctures as well as some of the dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short- and long-term incubation. Potentized alcohol showed no cytotoxicity at the concentrations studied. Carcinosinum in high potency induced apoptosis in DLA cells, while inducing the expression of the tumor-suppressor protein p53. The results showed that potentized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties.
(3) Preethi et al.58 investigated whether several homeopathic drugs, including Carcinosinum, when administered in the 200c potency, could induce apoptosis as seen by their morphology, DNA laddering, expression of genes related to apoptosis, and TUNEL assay. Carcinosinum increased the apoptotic gene p53. The researchers concluded that when compared to the action of their mother tinctures, the potentized drugs have biological activity similar to their mother tinctures in spite of ultradilution.
(4) Researchers investigated whether Carcinosinum 200c and Natrum sulphuricum 30c, fed alone or in combination with each other, could prevent azo dye-induced carcinogenesis in mice. The results showed that the drugs reduced the liver tumors with positive ultrastructural changes in MMP expression, genotoxic parameters, lipid peroxidation, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood glucose, bilirubin, creatinine and urea, and increased GSH, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase activity and hemoglobin, cholesterol, and albumin levels. Carcinosinum used in alternation with Natrum sulphuricum yielded additional benefits against the genotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by the carcinogens during hepatocarcinogenesis.
(5) Researchers at the M D Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas60 investigated the action of Carcinosinum and three other homeopathic drugs for cytotoxic effects against two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) as well as a cell line derived from immortalized normal human breast epithelium. The researchers found that the drugs induced cell cycle delay, or arrest and apoptosis in the two cancer cell lines. The authors concluded that the potentized homeopathic drugs including Carcinosinum have demonstrable biological activity against cancer cells.
Isotherapy has also been used successfully in the treatment of many other diseases. In one Indian study,61 25 patients diagnosed with tubercular lymphadenitis were given Tuberculinum along with 6x potencies of Silica as adjunct treatment. The study showed significant effects from immunotherapy with the nosode.
Homeopathy has been used for immunization of large populations with so-called nosodes for preventive purposes very much like allopathic vaccination since the early 1800s. The drugs prepared from a disease discharge or tissue are not only used for prevention but also for the successful treatment of infectious diseases without the use of antibiotics. These unique homeopathic drugs are sterile preparations from disease products, including anthrax, syphilis, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, tularemia, histoplasmosis, diphtheria, pertussis, mumps, rubella, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and many other infectious diseases. While this method is usually referred to as isopathy, for purposes of this paper we include research on this form of tautopathy in our literature search.
Most recently in 2010, Dr Gustavo Bracho conducted a large-scale trial62 using a homeopathically potentized Leptospirosis nosode on 2.3 million persons living in a known high-risk region of Cuba. The homeopathic intervention led to a highly significant decrease in disease incidence in the immunized population. The researchers concluded that homeopathic prophylaxis is a feasible tool for epidemic control, and that further research is warranted.
A 2000 experiment63 investigated the effect of administering six serial agitated dilutions (SAD: homeopathic potencies) prepared from Francisella tularensis as a preventive to 147 mice who were subsequently infected by a lethal dose of that microbe (randomly assigned to the SAD or the simple diluent control group). The solutions in the SAD group were distinguished from that of the control group by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The SAD group had significantly longer survival times and overall decreased mortality compared to the control group, prompting the researcher to call for further investigation.
A quadruple nosode was found effective in one study,64 keeping 84% of subjects free from incapacitating respiratory infections in winter. Of the 16% of patients who developed infections, many had milder infectious than expected. The researchers concluded that the combination nosode, prepared from Bacillinum, Influenzinum, Pneumococcus, and Streptococcus and given in potency, constitutes a powerful prophylactic agent against respiratory infections when given to healthy subjects.
An isopathic complex nosode was tested65 to evaluate whether it could reduce the intensity of genital herpes attacks and increase duration of remissions. In patients with a minimum of four attacks annually, 82% benefitted from the treatment in the predetermined criteria and in 41% there was no recurrence after the first treatment within 8 to 50 months. In 32% one or two relapses were observed. In 9% recurrences continued, but with reduced frequency and intensity.
Hormesis is a term used in toxicology to refer to the observation that a toxic environmental agent given in a small or diluted dose can induce a protective or beneficial effect against a high dose of the same toxic agent. For the purposes of this paper we shall treat the hormesis effect as a form of tautotherapy, since it has been shown that this effect has preventive and therapeutic benefits against both chemical toxins and electromagnetic radiation. The hormetic effect resembles the Arndt-Schultz law of late 19th century pharmacology, which described a bi-phasic action of drugs: a stimulatory and an inhibitory phase. In reality, it should be called a tri-phasic rule, including the third, toxic phase of a drug that can injure or kill in large doses. Indeed, this rule applies to all drugs that inhibit a vital process in moderate dose, stimulate that same process in a lower dose, and kill in overdoses. That is, if no tautopathic antidote is used! While the old Arndt-Schulz law can help to explain the tautopathic method, this effect has since been substantiated for many modern drugs using ordinary modern principles of biology, pharmacology and toxicology.
In the early part of the 19th century, the founder of homeopathy, Dr Samuel Hahnemann in his Organon, had already elaborated on a very similar universal principle of pharmacology he called the primary and secondary action of drugs which are often opposite to each other. A modern example of this is a blood pressure medication that can cause low blood pressure in its primary phase but will often cause an increase in blood pressure in its secondary effect (see also the rebound effect, below). This is why the long-term effect of allopathic blood pressure suppression is an even higher blood pressure. Hahnemann explains that while the primary effect can be used to suppress symptoms, the secondary effect is the curative effect of the drug. According to Hahnemann, the secondary effects of a drug (amplified through the process of potentization, a serial agitated dilution) are used to enhance the curative response. As such, the dose of a substance makes it either therapeutic or toxic.
According to these universal principles of pharmacology, any agent that has biological action can be used as either a drug or a poison, depending on the dose. The ancient Greeks aptly called both drugs and poisons pharmakon, from which the modern words “pharmacology” and “pharmaceutical” are derived. In homeopathy, we use all sorts of toxic products in diluted form to stimulate restorative or protective effects, many of them derived from allopathic drugs or from common environmental toxins. We have coined the term “pharmacode” to differentiate them from so-called “nosodes” derived from disease products, and from “sarcodes” derived from healthy living tissues, either human or animal.
The hormesis effect has been thoroughly studied and substantiated, according to Edward Calabrese, professor of toxicology at the University of Massachusetts’ School of Public Health, in Amherst, MA, USA. Dr Calabrese has found66-68 more than a thousand studies demonstrating hormesis, showing that the dose-response relationship is real. It is so real that for the purposes of a paper on tautopathy we do not need to repeat here the well-documented body of evidence for this toxicological principle. If the hormetic effect is applied intentionally in a therapeutic setting it is a form of tautopathy. It works in homeopathic potencies, even though it usually takes place with ordinary dilution or attenuations, and none of them are serial or agitated as in homeopathy. The fact that hormesis acts even in these simple dilutions, in electromagnetic as well as in chemical agents, is significant, in that it further corroborates the existing evidence from multiple replicated studies demonstrating biological effects from tautopathic/homeopathic potencies, even in ultra-high dilutions!
Homeopathic potencies in ultra-high dilution
A current Wikipedia article on the above-mentioned Arndt-Schultz law claims69 irrationally, that this “rule” would not apply to the extreme dilutions sometimes used in homeopathy. Wikipedia goes to great lengths to explain that these high dilutions “typically used in homeopathy, even though they have biological action in vitro and in vivo in several thousand studies, defy conventional scientific understanding.”
One problem with such assertions is that these ultra-high dilutions void of molecules are not typical for homeopathy when global homeopathic practice is taken into consideration. According to a 2004 scientific report published by the scientists at the International Research Group on Infinitesimal Dilutions (GIRI),70 worldwide only 25% of homeopathic prescriptions are made in such ultra-high dilutions. 75% of prescriptions range from undiluted medicines and herbal tinctures to dilutions well below Avogadro’s number. This fact alone invalidates routine attacks on homeopathy commonly found on Google, Wikipedia and other shills for “Big Pharma” on the ground of “scientific implausibility.”
Nevertheless, such unjustified attacks on homeopathy are made by the trolls paid by Big-Pharma (see Wilks v. AMA).71 The current versions of the multimillion-dollar “Campaign on Health Information72 continue almost daily against homeopathy, aimed at discrediting our profession and its remarkable successes. Please note that these self-styled “skeptics” still mostly use the ultra-high potency lie to attack all of homeopathy. One such habitual homeopathy basher is Dr Edzart Ernst,73 who is perhaps the biggest promoter of false claims that efficacy from homeopathy is “implausible” a priori. In his haste to defame homeopathy he has simply thrown the baby out with the bath water! For the purposes of this review we will proceed with the knowledge that homeopathy is perfectly plausible. Thus, discussion of the outcome of at least 75% of homeopathic practice does not require unusual proof, as is often asserted without rational basis, because in most prescribed homeopathic drugs, the dose does contain molecules of the original substance.
Secondary action of drugs and rebound effect
As we have seen, Hahnemann differentiated the primary and secondary actions of drugs.74 He described the primary action as the initial chemical interaction between the drug and the body’s tissues. He compared it with the indentation of a blunt instrument. The secondary reaction by the body was usually an “opposite” disorder, in the case of the blunt instrument a protrusion or swelling produced by the tissues to counter the primary action. Homeopathic and tautopathic treatment assist the body in its response to adapt to the initial injury by countering it with reparative effects.
Professor Teixera of the Faculty of Medicine of the Department of Medicine at the Universidad de Sao Paolo in Sao Paolo, Brazil, has equated this secondary drug action to the rebound effect observed with many modern drugs when withdrawn too quickly, and concludes that it corroborates Hahnemann’s observations. “Hahnemann considered the secondary action of medicine to be a law of nature.” To test his hypothesis, he reviewed the conditions under which it occurs. Teixera investigated the rebound effect75 of statins, stating it should support the similitude principle, the basic tenet of homeopathy. Statin drugs are prescribed worldwide to reduce blood cholesterol levels in order to prevent cardiovascular disorders. Texeira found that, according to recent studies, suspension of statin treatment can lead to a rebound, impairing vascular function and increasing cholesterol levels as well as morbidity and mortality in patients with vascular diseases. Similarly, this rebound is observed in many other modern palliative drugs. Texeira’s research has confirmed that “this rebound effect is the same as a secondary action or vital reaction described by Hahnemann; and used in homeopathy in a therapeutic sense.”
Teixera may not agree with the use of a tautopathic drug as the simillimum to the drug-induced disorder;76 however in our view his research has fully substantiated the veracity of the homeopathic as well as the tautopathic principles, and as a side benefit, appears to confirm our conclusions on Hahnemann’s statement on tautopathy we quoted from Chronic Diseases in our previous literature review:2 that the idem in potency constitutes the simillimum.
We have observed hundreds of serious and debilitating cases of drug rebound effects when patients suddenly decide to discontinue a drug because of adverse effects. Many recovered quickly after taking the suitable tautopathic pharmacode prepared from a potency of the drug, either alone or in combination with the indicated homeopathic medicine. Rather than wasting endless time trying to find “similar” remedies to the artificially induced syndrome, why not choose the most indicated drug itself, prepared from the offending substance, toxin, drug or even from radiation sources or electromagnetic fields (i.e. EMF, Mobile Phone, Rad-br., Electricitas, X-ray, etc.)?!
It is possible that the tautopathic hypothesis has been confirmed by the work77 of toxicologist R.M. Kuzeff, who examined so-called enantiomers whose molecular geometry enables them to exist in nature as non-superimposable mirror images. Kuzeff, who holds patents for his invention in multiple countries, proposed that the toxicity of a given chemical agent could be counteracted by a homeopathic potency of its enantiomer. Kuzeff conducted innovative research on potencies of enantiomers of so-called optical isomers — molecules that are not superimposable on their mirror images.
“The notion of treating the effects of optical isomers by use of their enantiomers in homeopathy first arose in the mid 1980s, not long after investigators published their first paper regarding isopathic use of pollen in the treatment of hay fever. At about that time, the author of the instant paper noted that d-tubocurarine, a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker used for muscle paralysis during surgery, was an optical isomer. He had toyed with the idea of using simple similarity in homeopathy to inhibit action of neuromuscular blockers, that is, using a homeopathic preparation of a neuromuscular blocker to modulate the toxicity of another neuromuscular blocker, for example, using alcuronium in pharmacological doses for neuromuscular blockade and administering a homeopathic potency of pancuronium or atracurium in an attempt to inhibit the toxicity of alcuronium. It seemed remarkable that ultrahigh dilutions attenuated beyond Avogadro’s number may be biologically active, although not all homeopathic preparations are ultradilute. In theory ultradilute solutions do not contain even a single molecule of the original medicinal substance from which the preparation is derived.”78
One wonders why Dr Kuzeff did not examine whether the toxic effects of (−)-propranolol hydrochloride could be directly countered by its own potency in favor of its enantiometer. He definitely could have proven the tautopathic hypothesis and confirmed that the medicinal effects of the potentized substance itself, believed by Hahnemann to be the simillimum to the effects of that same substance, can counter its adverse effects. Some modern homeopaths, such as Robin Murphy, author of the Medical Repertory and many other homeopathic books, recommend making routine use of tautopathic therapy, along with other common sense measures, for drug withdrawal reactions.79
Effects of aspirin
One researcher80 wondered if homeopathic principles applied to the common drug, aspirin. Morgan reviewed the scientific evidence for a possible link between regular ingestion of aspirin and a reduced risk of both colorectal and esophageal cancers. He then proposed that a homeopathic mechanism was responsible for the correlation. Aspirin has the known ability to induce inflammation and colorectal cancer. Since homeopathy employs small doses of the mother compound, perhaps potencies of aspirin could be used to reduce the risk of cancer and other disorders such as intestinal bleeding and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in the general population or in patients with precancerous colorectal and esophageal lesions. This approach would be able to counter and minimize adverse side effects from larger doses of aspirin on the digestive system.
Tautopathy for the adverse effects of radiotherapy
The application of the homeopathic remedy X-ray to counter the adverse effects of X-ray radiation therapy dates back to the first experiments with X-ray. Recently, modern researchers conducted studies to test the use of tautopathic treatment for the adverse effects of radiotherapy. For example, Balzarini et al.81 assessed the effects of Belladonna 7c in combination with X-ray 15c in the treatment of acute dermatitis associated with radiation treatment and found efficacy.
Organotherapy (OT) is another outgrowth of homeopathy that uses drugs prepared from healthy organ tissue to stimulate, strengthen or rectify the function of the same organs. While definitions become a bit blurry, this type of organotherapy could be construed also as a form of tautopathy. OT is also known as biological mRNA therapy, which acts on diseased organs by administering preparations of identical healthy organ extracts in order to rectify the function of the organ. This has been done with both potentized as well as undiluted products. Research has been conducted in a wide variety of systems that has shown effects, especially in the lower centesimal potencies. Organotherapy has also been practiced in conventional medicine primarily to supplement weakened or absent hormone production in endocrine glands. This form of organotherapy is not tautopathic. It is defined as the use of preparations derived from animal organs to treat diseases, such as the use of thyroid extract from bovine sources to supplement thyroid hormone. In modern medicine, allopathic organotherapy has largely been replaced by the use of synthetic preparations such as levothyroxin. Another example is the use of insulin for diabetes mellitus.
A considerable number of studies have shown the effect of thymus stimulation with potentized Thymulinum on thymulin production and on the immune system. In immune-deficient mice Thymulinum induced significant increase in cellular response.82 An opposite effect was observed in healthy mice. Children treated preventively with Thymulinum had shorter episodes of rhinopharyngitis and took fewer antibiotics for the condition.
A similar effect was observed when mice were treated with the 9th centesimal potency of alpha- and beta-interferon.83 This treatment induced significant immunosuppression while in healthy mice it stimulated immunity.
In our present review, we have examined the tautopathic hypothesis that a homeopathic potency or dilution of a pathogenic agent can induce, stimulate or support ameliorative, protective or reparative functions and adaptations in organisms, organs or tissues that have been infected, injured or poisoned by that agent. Based on our review, hundreds of studies (not all of which are cited here) have been conducted to support this hypothesis. The present research provided a scientific basis for the hypothesis that disorders caused by pathogens, drugs, allergens and especially by environmental toxins can be prevented and treated by potentized and even by simply diluted preparations of these agents. This is effective when administered either pre- or post-treatment, and either alone or in conjunction with other suitable medicines. We recommend that more research be conducted, especially into the use of tautopathic (isopathic) methods to counter adverse effects of pharmaceutical drugs and vaccines. The drugs used in potency are safe and free from harm when administered in individualized doses and in accordance with other homeopathic therapeutic guidelines as enumerated in the Organon of Medicine. There are currently no satisfactory, safe or effective evidence-based treatments in medicine to counter most environmental toxins, drugs or vaccine-induced disorders. Medicine as a profession unfortunately has responded to this lack by denying or ignoring the problem. Therefore, in light of the evidence, we recommend that, until further research becomes available, tautopathy should be used routinely to counter some of the most insidious and deadly afflictions of the 21st century: drug and environmental diseases.
Khuda-Buksh A.R. Quote from: Citation 16.
Mueller M. “The Practice of Tautopathy During the Classical Era of Homeopathy.” American Homeopath 17 (2011): 17-29
Null G. et al. Death by Medicine. WebDC.com. or Whale.to/a/null9.html. 2002
Null G. Death by Medicine. Praktikos Books, Jackson Virginia USA, 2011.
Rogers S. You Are What You Ate, Revised. An Rx for the diseases of the 21st century. Prestige Publishing, 2000.
Carr T. “Fluoroquinolones are too risky for common infectious. FDA advises restricting use of popular antibiotics such as Cipro due to dangerous side effects.” Consumer Reports 3 (2016).
National Institute of Medicine. “Addressing the physician shortage in occupational and environmental medicine.” National Academy of Sciences. Washington DC 1991.
Mueller M. “The Evidence — Scientific Studies on Homeopathic Cancer Treatment.” American Homeopath 13 (2007): 86-97
Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman. “Towards understanding molecular mechanisms of action of homeopathic drugs: an overview.” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 253.1 (2003): 339-345.
Hahnemann CFS. The Chronic Diseases: Their Peculiar Nature and Their Homeopathic Cure. Boericke & Tafel, Philadelphia USA, 1896.
Mueller M. “How Homeopathic Myths Are Born.” American Homeopath 14 (2008): 28-36.
Special Sub-committee of the British Homoeopathic Society to the Ministry of Home Security. “Report on mustard gas experiments (Glasgow and London).” Homeopathy 100.1 (2011): 27-35.
Roberfroid, M., J. de Gerlache, and M. Lans. “Action of Hahnemannian potencies upon artificially produced cancer in animals.” Aspects of Research in Homeopathy 1 (1983).
Ugazio, Giancarlo, Robert R. Koch, and Richard O. Recknagel. “Mechanism of protection against carbon tetrachloride by prior carbon tetrachloride administration.” Experimental and Molecular Pathology 16.3 (1972): 281-285.
Blostin R. (French) “Arsenicum album and Neurotoxic Poisoning in Dogs and Cats”. Proceedings of the second International Congress for Veterinary Homeopathy (IAVH) Zutphen Netherlands.
Mueller M. “Interview with Professor Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh.” American Homeopath 13 (2007): 22-29.
Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman, et al. “Can homeopathic arsenic remedy combat arsenic poisoning in humans exposed to groundwater arsenic contamination?: a preliminary report on first human trial.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2.4 (2005): 537-548.
Radnaike RN. “Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity.” Postgraduate Med J 79 (2003): 391-6.
Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur, et al. “Chronic arsenic toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India — a review and commentary.” Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology 39.7 (2001): 683-700.
Belon, Philippe, et al. “Homeopathic remedy for arsenic toxicity?: Evidence-based findings from a randomized placebo-controlled double blind human trial.” Science of the Total Environment 384.1 (2007): 141-150.
Belon, Philippe, et al. “Can administration of potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum album, alter antinuclear antibody (ANA) titer in people living in high-risk arsenic contaminated areas? I. A correlation with certain hematological parameters.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3.1 (2006): 99-107.
Datta S, et al. “Efficacy of a potentized homoeopathic drug (Arsenicum Album-30) in reducing genotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: II. Comparative efficacy of an antibiotic, actinomycin D alone and in combination with either of two microdoses.” Complementary Therapies in Medicine 7.3 (1999): 156-63.
Datta, S., P. Mallick, and AR Khuda Bukhsh. “Efficacy of a potentized homoeopathic drug (Arsenicum Album-30) in reducing genotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: comparative studies of pre-, post-and combined pre-and post-oral administration and comparative efficacy of two microdoses.” Complementary Therapies in Medicine 7.2 (1999): 62-75.
Khuda-Bukhsh AR and Chakrabarti C. “Efficacy of a potentized homoeopathic drug (Arsenicum Album-30) in reducing toxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: II. On alterations in body weight, tissue weight and total protein.” Complementary Therapies in Medicine 7.1 (1999): 24-34.
Kundu SN, et al. “Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (Arsenicum-album-30) in reducing cytotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: III. Enzymatic changes and recovery of tissue damage in liver.” Complementary Therapies in Medicine 8.2. (2000): 76-81.
Kundu SN, et al. Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (Arsenicum-Album-30) in reducing cytotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: IV. Pathological changes, protein profiles, and content of DNA and RNA. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 8.3 (2000):157-65.
Mallick, P., et al. “Ameliorating effect of microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album, on arsenic-induced toxicity in mice.” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3.1 (2003): 7.
Mitra K, et al. Efficacy of a potentized homoeopathic drug (Arsenicum Album-30) in reducing toxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: II. On alterations in body weight, tissue weight and total protein. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 7.1 (1999): 24-34.
Banerjee, P., et al. “A potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album 200, can ameliorate genotoxicity induced by repeated injections of arsenic trioxide in mice.” Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical medicine 54.7 (2007): 370-376.
Betti, L., et al. “Effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album on wheat seedlings from seed poisoned with the same substance.” British Homoeopathic Journal 86.2 (1997): 86-89.
Cazin, J. C., et al. “A study of the effect of decimal and centesimal dilutions of arsenic on the retention and mobilization of arsenic in the rat.” Human Toxicology 6.4 (1987): 315-320.
Datta, S., P. Mallick, and A.R. Khuda-Bukhsh. “Comparative efficacy of two microdoses of a potentized homoeopathic drug, Cadmium Sulphuricum, in reducing genotoxic effects produced by cadmium chloride in mice: a time course study.” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 1.1 (2001): 9.
Herkovits, J., C. Perez-Coll, and W. Zeni. “Reduced toxic effect of Cd on bufo arenarum embryos by means of very high diluted and stirred solutions of Cd.” Communicationes Biologicas 7 (1993): 70-73.
Delbancut, A., P. Dorfman, and J. Cambar. “Protective effect of very low concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium and cisplatin) against cytotoxic doses of these metals on renal tubular cell cultures.” British Homoeopathic journal 82.2 (1993): 123-124.
De Gerlache, J., and M. Lans. “Modulation of experimental rat liver carcinogenesis by ultra low doses of the carcinogens.” Ultra Low Doses (1991): 17.
Montfort, Hector. “A new homeopathic approach to neoplastic diseases: from cell destruction to carcinogen-induced apoptosis.” British Homoeopathic Journal 89.2 (2000): 78-83.
Fisher, P. “The treatment of lead intoxication in rats by Plumbum metallicum and penicillamine.” Proceedings of the 35th Congress of the LHMI. 1982.
Fisher, P., et al. “The influence of the homoeopathic remedy plumbum metallicum on the excretion kinetics of lead in rats.” Human Toxicology 6.4 (1987): 321-324.
Larue, F., et al. “Influence of the Pretreatment of Infinitesimal Dilutions of Mercurius corrosivus on the Mortality Induced by Mercuric chloride.” Nephrologie 6 (1985): 86.
Datta, S., S. J. Biswas, and A. R. Khuda-Bukhsh. “Comparative efficacy of pre-feeding, post-feeding and combined pre-and post-feeding of two microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, mercurius solubilis, in ameliorating genotoxic effects produced by mercuric chloride in mice.” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 1.3 (2004): 291-300.
Hahnemann CFS. Organon 6th Edition, Aphorism 270 etc. Transl. Dudgeon. Boericke & Tafel Philadelphia USA, 1901.
Wiesenauer, M., and W. Gaus. “Double-blind trial comparing the effectiveness of the homeopathic preparation Galphimia potentiation D6, Galphimia dilution 10 (-6) and placebo on pollinosis.” Arzneimittelforschung 35.11 (1984): 1745-1747.
Kim, Linda S., et al. “Treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis using homeopathic preparation of common allergens in the southwest region of the US: a randomized, controlled clinical trial.” Annals of Pharmacotherapy 39.4 (2005): 617-624. (E pub ahead of print).
Bellavite, P., et al. “Advances in homeopathy and immunology: a review of clinical research.” Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 3 (2011): 1363-1389.
Bellavite, P., R. Ortolani, and A. Conforti. “Immunology and homeopathy. 3. Experimental studies on animal models.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3.2 (2006): 171-186.
Lewith, G. T., et al. “Use of ultramolecular potencies of allergen to treat asthmatic people allergic to house dust mite: double blind randomised controlled clinical trial.” BMJ 324.7336 (2002): 520.
Aabel, S., et al. “Is homeopathic ‘immunotherapy’ effective? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with the isopathic remedy Betula 30c for patients with birch pollen allergy.” British Homoeopathic Journal 89.4 (2000): 161-168.
Aabel, S. “No beneficial effect of isopathic prophylactic treatment for birch pollen allergy during a low-pollen season: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of homeopathic Betula 30c.” British Homoeopathic Journal 89.4 (2000): 169-173.
Behring, A.E. von. [German] Moderne physiogenetische und physiotherapeutische Probleme in historischer Beleuchtung. Selbstverlag des Verfassers. Marburg Germany, 1905.
Coley WB. Annals of surgery 14 (1891):199-200.
Livingston-Wheeler V. The Conquest of Cancer: Vaccines and Diet. Watts, New York USA, 1984.
Hahnemann CFS. The Chronic Diseases: Their Peculiar Nature and Their Homeopathic Cure. Boericke & Tafel, Philadelphia USA, 1896.
Vannier L. Les Canceriniques et leur Traitement Homeopathique. Etude clinique et therapeutique. Edité par Doin. Paris France, 1952.
Vickers, A. J., and C. Smith. “Homoeopathic Oscillococcinum for preventing and treating influenza and influenza-like syndromes.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2 (2000): CD001957.
Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti, et al. “Efficacy of the Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Carcinosin 200, Fed Alone and in Combination with Another Drug, Chelidonium 200, in Amelioration of p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene–Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Mice.” Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 11.5 (2005): 839-854.
Sunila, Ellanzhiyil Surendran, et al. “Dynamized preparations in cell culture.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 6.2 (2009): 257-263. (Epub 2007 Oct 3).
Sunila, E. S., et al. “Effect of homeopathic medicines on transplanted tumors in mice.” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 8.3 (2007): 390.
Preethi, Korengath, et al. “Induction of apoptosis of tumor cells by some potentiated homeopathic drugs: implications on mechanism of action.” Integrative cancer therapies 11.2 (2012): 172-182. [Epub ahead of print].
Bhattacharjee, N., P. Banerjee, and A. R. Khuda-Bhuksh. “Homeopathic drugs Natrum sulphuricum and Carcinosin prevent azo dye-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.” Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics 46.4 (2009): 307-318.
Frenkel, Moshe, et al. “Cytotoxic effects of ultra-diluted remedies on breast cancer cells.” International Journal of Oncology 36.2 (2010): 395-403.
Chand, S. Kusum, et al. “Homeopathy in the treatment of tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLN)–An Indian experience.” Homeopathy 100.3 (2011): 157-167.
Bracho, Gustavo, et al. “Large-scale application of highly-diluted bacteria for Leptospirosis epidemic control.” Homeopathy 99.3 (2010): 156-166.
Jonas, W. B., and D. Dillner. “Protection of mice from Tularemia infection with ultra-low, serial agitated dilutions prepared from Francisella tularensis-infected tissue.” J Scient Explor 14 (2000): 35-52.
Kerr, John Fraser. “Quadruple nosode: for the prophylaxis of respiratory infections.” British Homoeopathic journal 53.3 (1964): 170-173.
Jenaer, Maurice, et al. “Evaluation of 2LHERP in preventing recurrences of genital herpes.” British Homeopathic Journal 89.4 (2000): 174-177.
Calabrese, E. J., M. E. McCarthy, and E. Kenyon. “The occurrence of chemically induced hormesis.” Health Physics 52.5 (1987): 531-541.
Calabrese, E. J. “Hormesis: a revolution in toxicology, risk assessment and medicine.” EMBO Reports 5.1S (2004): S37-S40.
Calabrese, E. J. “Expanding the reference dose concept to incorporate and optimize beneficial effects while preventing toxic responses from nonessential toxicants.” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 24.1 (1996): S68-S75.
ECH General Assembly — XVIII Symposium of GIRI 12-14 November 2004 Scientific Report. Link: http://www.giri-society.org.
Associated Press. U.S. Judge finds medical group conspired against chiropractors. New York Times. 1987 8.
Lisa PJ. Assault on Medical Freedom. Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Newburyport Massachusetts USA, 1994.
Ernst E. “Homeopathy is implausible — some research into this subject is positively barmy.” http://www.edzarternst.com/2015/04/homeopathy-is-implausible-but-some-research-into-this-subject- is-positively-barmy/
Hahnemann CFS. Aphorism 65. Organon of Medicine. Transl. Dudgeon R.E., Boericke & Tafel, Philadelphia USA, 1901.
Teixeira, M. Z. “Statins withdrawal, vascular complications, rebound effect and similitude.” Homeopathy 99.4 (2010): 255-262.
Teixeira, M. Z. “New homeopathic medicines: use of modern drugs according to the principle of similitude.” Homeopathy 100.4 (2011): 244-252.
Kuzeff, R. M. “A review of use of enantiomers in homeopathy.” ISRN toxicology 2012 (2012).
Kuzeff, R. M., M. N. Topashka-Ancheva, and R. P. Mecheva. “Inhibition of (–)-trans-(1S, 2S)-U50488 Hydrochloride by Its Enantiomer in White Mice–a Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study.” Complementary Medicine Research11.3 (2004): 144-149.
Murphy R. “Homeopathic Toxicology.” Address delivered at ARH Conference 2006 1.
Morgan, G. “Aspirin chemoprevention of colorectal and oesophageal cancers. An overview of the literature and homeopathic explanation.” European Journal of Cancer Prevention: The Official Journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 5.6 (1996): 439-443.
Balzarini, A., et al. “Efficacy of homeopathic treatment of skin reactions during radiotherapy for breast cancer: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial.” British Homeopathic Journal 89.1 (2000): 8-12.
Bastide, M., et al. “Immunodulator activity of very low doses of thymulin in mice.” International Journal of Immunotherapy 3.3 (1987): 191-200.
Daurat, V., P. Dorfman, and M. Bastide. “Immunomodulatory activity of low doses of interferon alpha, beta in mice.” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy= Biomedecine & Pharmacotherapie 42.3 (1988): 197-206.
Reprinted with permission from American Homeopath